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Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

2006-08-30
2006-01-1987
In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Commercial Transport Aircraft Aerodynamics at Extreme Flight Conditions

2002-11-05
2002-01-2912
A series of low-speed static and dynamic wind tunnel tests of a commercial transport configuration over an extended angle of attack/sideslip envelope was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The test results are intended for use in the development of an aerodynamic simulation database for determining aircraft flight characteristics at extreme and loss-of-control conditions. This database will be used for the development of loss-of-control prevention or mitigation systems, pilot training for recovery from such conditions, and accident investigations. An overview of the wind-tunnel tests is presented and the results of the tests are evaluated with respect to traditional simulation database development techniques for modeling extreme conditions to identify regions where simulation fidelity should be addressed.
Technical Paper

Virtual Laboratory (VLAB) Concept Applied in a Life Science Laboratory

1998-07-13
981792
As pieces of the International Space Station (ISS) enter their test phase, access to information and data from the test laboratories must be made immediately available to analysts, managers, and customers. The Virtual Laboratory (VLAB) concept provides remote access to laboratory test data and other information, indirectly as archived data or directly as real-time data off the test bed. We applied VLAB to a life support system hardware test (the Trace Contaminant Control System, TCCS) in the Life Support Technology Center (LSTC). In this paper we describe the VLAB concept in the context of the TCCS hardware test.
Technical Paper

Verification of Supply Chain Quality for Perishable Tools

2007-09-17
2007-01-3813
Increased emphasis on standardizing processes and controlling variability in production operations includes validating perishable tools used in daily operations. Even though dealing with reputable manufacturers, many factors including communication, custom specifications and personnel turnover can lead to the perpetuation of mistakes if errors are not discovered and corrective action implemented. However, inspection is costly and inspection costs far outweigh many item costs unless considering product defects. A beneficial balance may be obtained by employing statistical sampling techniques similar to ISO 2859 [1] to verify the quality of incoming tools.
Technical Paper

Use of Electromagnetic and Vacuum Forces on Aircraft Assembly

2002-10-01
2002-01-2630
Decades ago our innovative grandfathers developed the first automated riveting machines based on hard automation using kinematics and tools attached to a C-frame. The C-frame serves multiple functions: First, it holds the upper and lower tools in fixed positions relative to each other; second, it translates upper active tooling forces to the lower tool; and third, it embraces the part placed between the upper and lower tool. C-frames and newly developed yoke, ring and gantry machines, used for low level (first, second) fuselage and wing assembly are growing in size to exorbitant proportions to satisfy requirements of larger and larger structures. High costs are dictated by massive kinematics and complex controls that provide stability, precision, and process speed. All this is mainly needed because we have to carry mechanical forces around the part, from upper to lower tool along the C-frame, gantry, yoke, bridge, etc.
Technical Paper

Universal Splice Machine

2007-09-17
2007-01-3782
There is an increasing demand in the aerospace industry for automated machinery that is portable, flexible and light. This paper will focus on a joint project between BROETJE-Automation and Boeing called the Universal Splice Machine (USM). The USM is a portable, flexible and lightweight automated drilling and fastening machine for longitudinal splices. The USM is the first machine of its kind that has the ability not only to drill holes without the need to deburr, (burrless drilling) but also to insert fasteners. The Multi Function End Effector (MFEE) runs on a rail system that is mounted directly on the fuselage using a vacuum cup system. Clamp up is achieved through the use of an advanced electromagnet. A control cart follows along next to the fuselage and includes an Automated Fastener Feeding System. This paper will show how this new advancement has the capabilities to fill gaps in aircraft production that automation has never reached before.
Technical Paper

Traceable Part Batching Performance Modeling: A Simulation Case Study

2004-09-21
2004-01-2822
This paper addresses a simulation modeling case study of a batching process. The batching process exists in a multi-server, multi-queue aircraft component manufacturing system where all parts and batches are serial numbered for traceability. Every lot of parts requires a unique set of serial numbers and the sequence of batches is required to follow the airplane master production schedule. The study goal was to identify and provide solutions to shorten arrival time differences among parts going to the same batch in a system of more than 100 shared processes. Queue lengths, resource utilization, bottlenecks, and various scenario comparisons were yielded from simulation modeling exercises.
Technical Paper

The Problem: Estimating a Complex Project Duration

2002-04-16
2002-01-1540
Schedule/Cost Risk, politics, competition for capital dollars are all factors affecting our project decisions and choices. Not understanding the key elements of a project that will contribute to schedule and cost risk will invariably result in overruns that can quickly absorb the returns expected from the investment. This paper attempts to provide the project team with a model that considers some risk factor elements to assist with the selection of project alternatives and more intelligent schedule/cost estimating.
Technical Paper

The Personal Computer Transport Analyzer Program

2006-07-17
2006-01-2050
Since flight requirements often necessitate last-minute re-analysis, it became crucial to develop flexible and comprehensive transport phenomena analysis software that would quickly ensure all vehicle and payload requirements would be satisfied. The software would replace various mainframe-based software, such as the Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (TRASYS) and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). The software would need to have the flexibility to employ models that could be developed and modified as vehicle systems change. By use of event files which contain simple, intuitive commands, the characteristics of individual missions could be built as inputs to the model. By moving the Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS) system model to the PC environment, each analyst would have execution, storage, and processing management control. And of course, software portability would be greatly increased.
Technical Paper

The Lithium Hydroxide Management Plan for Removing Carbon Dioxide from the Space Shuttle while Docked to the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2491
The Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) management plan to control carbon dioxide (CO2) for the Shuttle while docked to the International Space Station (ISS) reduces the mass and volume needed to be launched. For missions before Flight UF-1/STS-108, the Shuttle and ISS each removed their own CO2 during the docked time period. To control the CO2 level, the Shuttle used LiOH canisters and the ISS used the Vozdukh or the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) with the Vozdukh being the primary ISS device for CO2 removal. Analysis predicted that both the Shuttle and Station atmospheres could be controlled using the Station resources with only the Vozdukh and the CDRA. If the LiOH canisters were not needed for the CO2 control on the Shuttle during the docked periods, then the mass and volume from these LiOH canisters normally launched on the Shuttle could be replaced with other cargo.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gravity Induced Buoyancy on Velocity Measurement in 1-g Environment

2001-07-09
2001-01-2256
The effects of testing cabin ventilation in gravity to meet a requirement for ventilation on orbit were analyzed. Buoyancy is due to the combined presence of a density gradient within the fluid and a body force that is proportional to the fluid density. Since gravity cannot be removed, the test must be conducted with air at as near to constant density as practical in order to remove buoyancy effects. The effects of gravity induced buoyancy force on the velocity field was analyzed by the Richardson number. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to verify the theoretical methods. The velocity data for a 1-g and a no gravity case were compared. The ratio between local velocity and free stream velocity, u/U∞ were analyzed for the dimensionless parameter, η (= y ✓ U∞/νx). There is a relatively sharp rise in the profile near the wall and an overshoot of the velocity beyond its free stream value.
Technical Paper

The Boeing 777-300/PW4098 Flying Test-Bed Program

1998-09-28
985550
The 98,000 lb. thrust Pratt & Whitney PW4098 high-bypass turbofan engine recently completed a flying test-bed program on the Boeing 777-300 airplane. The purpose of the one-month program was to validate engine operability and to gather data that can be used for upcoming engine certification to the standards of Federal Aviation Regulations part 33. Testing included engine transient operation, steady-state performance, in-flight starting, component cooling, and inlet compatibility. When engine certification is complete, an airplane certification program will be conducted for the 777-300/PW4098, a combination of the world's largest twin engine airplane and the world's largest turbofan engine yet to fly.
Technical Paper

The Automated NC Mini-Driller

1999-10-06
1999-01-3436
The introduction of a new derivative to an existing aircraft model poses many decisions regarding old versus new. In the case of the introduction of the extended range 767 (the 767-400ER), an entirely new wing design prompted the examination of the then current assembly processes and tooling. The hesitation to build new drill templates for use in the traditional method of second stage wing spar assembly inspired Tool Engineering Management to request the investigation of a low cost automated drilling apparatus. As a result, the Boeing Automated Tools Group and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) developed and implemented mobile numerically controlled mini-drilling machines for post-ASAT I assembly-drilling operations.
Journal Article

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Swing Tail Door Alignment and Latch Mechanism

2008-09-16
2008-01-2281
One essential feature of the 787 production system is the 747-400 Large Cargo Freighter (LCF), also known as the Dreamlifter,[1] and its ability to quickly and efficiently transport large components from global manufacturing locations to the final assembly site in Everett, Washington. This unique airplane has a tail section (Swing Tail) that opens to allow cargo loading. Quickly loading and unloading cargo is largely dependent on the reliable operation of the integral swing tail door alignment and latching systems. The swing tail door is approximately 23 feet horizontally by 29 feet vertically in size. The alignment and latching systems are required to function in a wide range of environmental conditions including temperature extremes and high winds. At the same time, these systems must ensure that flight loads are safely transmitted from the tail to the airplane fuselage without inducing undue fuselage preloads and without excessive play in the latching system.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE AUGMENTOR WING CONCEPT

1970-02-01
700812
A review is made of previously reported status of the augmentor wing concept, including test work of de Havilland Aircraft of Canada and the NASA Ames Research Center. More recent NASA data which formed the basis for proceeding with a flight research vehicle program on the Buffalo CV-7A are discussed. This background is used to show potential application to a turbofan-powered production airplane concept whose highly integrated propulsion and aerodynamics show promise for a very quiet STOL. Proposed future augmentor wing development programs are also briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

System Software Safety Assessment Process for Certification of Commercial and Military Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3390
For the next 10 years new world-wide communication, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) requirements are being incrementally imposed upon military aircraft avionics, and upon the Air Traffic Control community, by the Aviation Administrations of most nations, including the FAA and the JAA. These requirements are the result of a decade of study by the United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to improve aviation safety and efficiency. In 2001 the USAF mandated compliance to the CNS requirements for its military aircraft, which is called Navigation Safety (NS) GATM by the USAF. By complying with these requirements, the military aircraft can maintain their ability to fly internationally without CNS restrictions. The FAA requires that flight software be assessed, developed and/or verified (proven) with a methodology recommended by the RTCA document called DO-178B for software based systems.
Technical Paper

Structural Pressures Developed During Fill of Complex Systems

1998-07-13
981735
Excessive impact pressures can develop when an evacuated system is filled with liquid. Such a process is usually highly chaotic, especially when the system geometry is complex. Available computational methods by themselves cannot provide the necessary answers. The International Space Station (ISS) heat exchanger has a complex flow system, and a synthesis of computational and experimental methods was necessary to design the system. The FLOW-NET two-phase flow program was used to determine the range of loss coefficients and the liquid-vapor interface mass and energy transfer that would fit the measured impact pressures. These loss coefficients could then be used to compute the impact pressures for a design configuration similar to the one tested at a range of operating conditions.
Journal Article

Status of the International Space Station (ISS) Trace Contaminant Control System

2009-07-12
2009-01-2353
A habitable atmosphere is a fundamental requirement for human spaceflight. To meet this requirement, the cabin atmosphere must be constantly scrubbed to maintain human life and system functionality. The primary system for atmospheric scrubbing of the US on-orbit segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). As part of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems' (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization rack in the US Lab, the TCCS operates continuously, scrubbing trace contaminants generated primarily by two sources: the metabolic off-gassing of crew members and the off-gassing of equipment in the ISS. It has been online for approximately 95% of the time since activated in February 2001. The TCCS is comprised of a charcoal bed, a catalytic oxidizer, and a lithium hydroxide post-sorbent bed, all of which are designed to be replaced on-orbit when necessary.
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