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Technical Paper

Verification of Supply Chain Quality for Perishable Tools

2007-09-17
2007-01-3813
Increased emphasis on standardizing processes and controlling variability in production operations includes validating perishable tools used in daily operations. Even though dealing with reputable manufacturers, many factors including communication, custom specifications and personnel turnover can lead to the perpetuation of mistakes if errors are not discovered and corrective action implemented. However, inspection is costly and inspection costs far outweigh many item costs unless considering product defects. A beneficial balance may be obtained by employing statistical sampling techniques similar to ISO 2859 [1] to verify the quality of incoming tools.
Technical Paper

Use of Electromagnetic and Vacuum Forces on Aircraft Assembly

2002-10-01
2002-01-2630
Decades ago our innovative grandfathers developed the first automated riveting machines based on hard automation using kinematics and tools attached to a C-frame. The C-frame serves multiple functions: First, it holds the upper and lower tools in fixed positions relative to each other; second, it translates upper active tooling forces to the lower tool; and third, it embraces the part placed between the upper and lower tool. C-frames and newly developed yoke, ring and gantry machines, used for low level (first, second) fuselage and wing assembly are growing in size to exorbitant proportions to satisfy requirements of larger and larger structures. High costs are dictated by massive kinematics and complex controls that provide stability, precision, and process speed. All this is mainly needed because we have to carry mechanical forces around the part, from upper to lower tool along the C-frame, gantry, yoke, bridge, etc.
Technical Paper

The Lithium Hydroxide Management Plan for Removing Carbon Dioxide from the Space Shuttle while Docked to the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2491
The Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) management plan to control carbon dioxide (CO2) for the Shuttle while docked to the International Space Station (ISS) reduces the mass and volume needed to be launched. For missions before Flight UF-1/STS-108, the Shuttle and ISS each removed their own CO2 during the docked time period. To control the CO2 level, the Shuttle used LiOH canisters and the ISS used the Vozdukh or the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) with the Vozdukh being the primary ISS device for CO2 removal. Analysis predicted that both the Shuttle and Station atmospheres could be controlled using the Station resources with only the Vozdukh and the CDRA. If the LiOH canisters were not needed for the CO2 control on the Shuttle during the docked periods, then the mass and volume from these LiOH canisters normally launched on the Shuttle could be replaced with other cargo.
Technical Paper

The Automated NC Mini-Driller

1999-10-06
1999-01-3436
The introduction of a new derivative to an existing aircraft model poses many decisions regarding old versus new. In the case of the introduction of the extended range 767 (the 767-400ER), an entirely new wing design prompted the examination of the then current assembly processes and tooling. The hesitation to build new drill templates for use in the traditional method of second stage wing spar assembly inspired Tool Engineering Management to request the investigation of a low cost automated drilling apparatus. As a result, the Boeing Automated Tools Group and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) developed and implemented mobile numerically controlled mini-drilling machines for post-ASAT I assembly-drilling operations.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Simulation Enhanced Work Instructions for Aircraft Assemblies

1998-06-02
981861
The Boeing Company is developing and implementing the tools for the 21st Century for product development with their Design Manufacturing and Producibility Simulation (DMAPS) program. DMAPS combines the best of people, hardware and software tools commercially available to develop product and process simulation applications. The DMAPS toolset enhances the process of preparing concept layouts, assembly layouts and build-to-packages. Comprised of an Integrated Product and Process Team (IPPT), DMAPS produces products faster and with higher quality. The result is a process that eliminates costly changes and rework, and provides all IPPT's the tools and training necessary to perform their tasks right the first time. Boeing applies DMAPS tools to a variety of existing and new programs to build more affordable products. Savings goals set forth by the program are shown in Figure 1.
Journal Article

Shielding Effectiveness of Sodium Alanate and Ammonia Borane for Galactic Cosmic Ray and Solar Energetic Particle Event Environments

2008-06-29
2008-01-2163
Estimates of the effectiveness of the high-hydrogen containing materials, sodium alanate and ammonia borane, are made by calculating dose and dose equivalent for the 1977 solar minimum and 1970 solar maximum galactic cosmic ray spectra and for the large solar particle event spectra from the space era event of August 1972 and comparing their shielding effectiveness with that of polyethylene.
Journal Article

Self-Configuring Hybrid Duct System and Attachment Technologies for Environmental Control Systems

2009-11-10
2009-01-3277
Environmental Control Systems (ECS) ducts on airplanes are primarily fabricated from aluminum or thermoset composites, depending on temperature and pressure requirements. It is imperative to fabricate lightweight, cost effective, durable, and repairable systems with minimal tooling. It is also important that the duct systems are easy to assemble even with alignment issues resulting from structural variations, tolerance accumulation, variation from thermal expansion of different materials, and inherent duct stiffness. These requirements create an opportunity and need for a technology that can address all of these issues, while increasing performance at the same time. This report provides a background on current ECS ducting systems.
Technical Paper

Recent Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

2004-07-19
2004-01-2428
A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas removal performance and operational lifetime of the gas trap have been affected by contamination in the ITCS coolant. However, the gas trap has performed flawlessly with regard to its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. This paper discusses on-orbit events over the course of the last year related to the performance and functioning of the gas trap.
Technical Paper

Radial and Tangential Forces, Tool Motion, and the Formation of Lobed Holes in Drilling

2002-09-30
2002-01-2637
Out-of-round holes are formed as a result of tool motion during drilling. Tool vibration is driven by radial and tangential forces on the primary and secondary cutting edges. These forces in turn depend on the chip loads on each cutting edge, which in turn depend on the position of the tool at the current time and at the time of the previous tooth passage. A preliminary analysis based on balancing the cutting forces and the bending forces on the tool, shows that the characteristic frequencies of motion of the tool in the tool frame are near 3/rev, 5/rev, 7/rev etc. (corresponding to 2/rev, 4/rev, 6/rev) in the workpiece frame. These motions are consistent with the tool motion and hole form errors commonly observed on the shop floor. We will describe procedures for measuring the dependence of cutting forces on chip load, the development of simple equations for lateral motion of the tool, and solutions for the tool's behavior.
Technical Paper

Power Quality Specification Development for More Electric Airplane Architectures

2002-10-29
2002-01-3206
Power quality has become a subject of increased attention for electrical power systems on both commercial and military aircraft. Several power quality guidelines and specification documents exist that govern today's power system operation and the contributing characteristics of electrical load equipment. This paper presents power quality requirements for future Boeing commercial airplanes, driven by advances in aerospace applications of power electronic equipment, increased load demand and complexity, as well as new power system architectures. The influence of new equipment types on electrical system power quality is described including the effects of motor controllers, AC power converters, and large dynamic loads. The impact of power type classifications such as variable frequency AC power and multiple DC voltage levels is also discussed. Simulation results are presented to develop and validate these power quality requirements.
Technical Paper

Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal

2003-07-07
2003-01-2487
Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station's U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBA's service life.
Technical Paper

Portable Fastener Delivery and Installation System

2003-09-08
2003-01-2953
The Portable Fastener Delivery System or PFDS, has been developed at the Boeing St. Louis facility to streamline the manual fastener installation process. The PFDS delivers various fasteners, on demand, through a delivery tube to an installation tool used by the operator to install the fasteners in an aircraft assembly. This paper describes the PFDS in its current configuration, along with the associated Huck® International (now Alcoa Fastening Systems) installation tooling, as it is being implemented on the F/A-18E/F Nosebarrel Skinning application. As a “portable” system, the PFDS cart can be rolled to any location on the shop floor it might be needed. The system uses a removable storage cassette to cache many sizes and types of fasteners in the moderate quantities that might be required for a particular assembly task. The operator begins the installation sequence by calling for the particular fastener grip length needed using a wireless control pendant.
Technical Paper

Oxygen/Nitrogen Supply and Distribution for the United States On-Orbit Segment of the International Space Station

1997-07-01
972381
The on-orbit oxygen and nitrogen supply for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is provided in tanks mounted on the outside of the Airlock module. Gasses are supplied, for distribution to users within the USOS, via pressure regulators in the Airlock. The on-orbit storage can be replenished with gas that is scavenged from the Space Shuttle, or by direct replacement of the tanks. The supply and distribution system are described in this paper. The users of the gasses are identified. The system architecture is presented. Operational considerations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

2003-07-07
2003-01-2565
A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the NCG. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped NCG to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The purpose of the gas trap is to prevent gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump, and the current gas trap has performed flawlessly in this regard. However, because of actual operational conditions on-orbit, its gas removal performance and operational lifetime have been affected.
Technical Paper

Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station

2009-07-12
2009-01-2413
The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen storage in the human spaceflight environment.
Technical Paper

Machining-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion

2005-10-03
2005-01-3317
Distortion and buckling of aluminum aerospace components can be caused by machining-induced residual stress or by residual stress induced earlier in material processing. This stress is characterized through layer removal experiments and measurements of surface location. This stress is correlated to two machining process parameters, which can be changed, in order to control distortion and buckling of machined metallic components. Experiments are presented which compare distortion of thin machined parts to distortion of chemically milled parts in order to uncouple material bulk stress from machining-induced stress.
Technical Paper

Laser Tracker Assisted Aircraft Machining and Assembly

2008-09-16
2008-01-2313
The patented (US 7,277,811 B1) Position Bar provides precise measurement, machining and drilling data for large Engineering and Tooling structure. The Position Bar also supports end item verification seamlessly in the same machining control code. Position Bar measurements are fast, accurate, and repeatable. The true centerline of the machine tool's spindle bearings are being measured to within .002 in a 20 foot cubic volume (20×20×20). True “I”, “J”, & “K” machine tool spindle positions are also precisely measured. Any Gantry or Post Mill Tool can be converted to a Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) with this laser tracker controlled Position Bar. Determinant Assembly (D.A.) holes, for fuselage and wing structures are drilled and then measured to within .006 in X, Y, & Z, over a 40 foot distance. Average laser tracker measurement time, per hole, is 2 seconds.
Technical Paper

International Space Station (ISS) Metabolic Oxygen Consumption for Expeditions 12

2006-07-17
2006-01-2090
The analysis presented in this paper focuses on the metabolic consumption of oxygen by the crew onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Expedition 12. The Russian Elektron, which electrolyzes water to produce oxygen, operational and non-operational periods are used to assist in the calculation of metabolic oxygen consumption. Non-operational periods will be used to establish baseline crew consumption rates. The importance of this analysis is to provide more accurate trend of oxygen metabolic consumption rates for Expedition 12.
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