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Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

2006-08-30
2006-01-1987
In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

Verification of Supply Chain Quality for Perishable Tools

2007-09-17
2007-01-3813
Increased emphasis on standardizing processes and controlling variability in production operations includes validating perishable tools used in daily operations. Even though dealing with reputable manufacturers, many factors including communication, custom specifications and personnel turnover can lead to the perpetuation of mistakes if errors are not discovered and corrective action implemented. However, inspection is costly and inspection costs far outweigh many item costs unless considering product defects. A beneficial balance may be obtained by employing statistical sampling techniques similar to ISO 2859 [1] to verify the quality of incoming tools.
Technical Paper

The Problem: Estimating a Complex Project Duration

2002-04-16
2002-01-1540
Schedule/Cost Risk, politics, competition for capital dollars are all factors affecting our project decisions and choices. Not understanding the key elements of a project that will contribute to schedule and cost risk will invariably result in overruns that can quickly absorb the returns expected from the investment. This paper attempts to provide the project team with a model that considers some risk factor elements to assist with the selection of project alternatives and more intelligent schedule/cost estimating.
Technical Paper

The Boeing 777-300/PW4098 Flying Test-Bed Program

1998-09-28
985550
The 98,000 lb. thrust Pratt & Whitney PW4098 high-bypass turbofan engine recently completed a flying test-bed program on the Boeing 777-300 airplane. The purpose of the one-month program was to validate engine operability and to gather data that can be used for upcoming engine certification to the standards of Federal Aviation Regulations part 33. Testing included engine transient operation, steady-state performance, in-flight starting, component cooling, and inlet compatibility. When engine certification is complete, an airplane certification program will be conducted for the 777-300/PW4098, a combination of the world's largest twin engine airplane and the world's largest turbofan engine yet to fly.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

2004-11-02
2004-01-3100
As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

Simulation Enhanced Work Instructions for Aircraft Assemblies

1998-06-02
981861
The Boeing Company is developing and implementing the tools for the 21st Century for product development with their Design Manufacturing and Producibility Simulation (DMAPS) program. DMAPS combines the best of people, hardware and software tools commercially available to develop product and process simulation applications. The DMAPS toolset enhances the process of preparing concept layouts, assembly layouts and build-to-packages. Comprised of an Integrated Product and Process Team (IPPT), DMAPS produces products faster and with higher quality. The result is a process that eliminates costly changes and rework, and provides all IPPT's the tools and training necessary to perform their tasks right the first time. Boeing applies DMAPS tools to a variety of existing and new programs to build more affordable products. Savings goals set forth by the program are shown in Figure 1.
Technical Paper

Requirements and Potential for Enhanced EVA Information Interfaces

2003-07-07
2003-01-2413
NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.
Technical Paper

Liquid Water Content and Droplet Size Distribution Mass Fractions for Wind Milling Engine Fan Blade Ice Accretion Analysis

2007-09-24
2007-01-3291
A procedure for calculating the engine inlet diffuser section liquid water content and mass fractions of liquid water content associated with the water droplet size distribution for wind milling engine ice accretion analysis is presented. Critical fuel reserve calculation for extended twin-engine operation requires the determination of drag increase due to ice accretion on inoperative wind milling engine fan blade and guide vane.
Technical Paper

Keep the User in Mind: Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks

2007-09-17
2007-01-3785
Security is a serious concern for all Internet users, and all the more so if the implications of security failure can potentially affect safety of flight or the public's perception of air travel. However, when designing networked aircraft and onboard systems, technical security features are only one aspect of the implementation that must be addressed. Given the unique operational, support, and regulatory environment of commercial air transports, careful consideration must also be given to both design and operational requirements in order to develop an aircraft that can be safely operated and maintained within the constraints of the existing infrastructure and personnel available. This paper addresses the unique Operational Considerations for Securing Airborne Networks in commercial air transport aircraft.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Lab Module Simulator Build-Up and Validation

2003-07-07
2003-01-2519
As part of the Sustaining Engineering program for the International Space Station (ISS), a ground simulator of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) in the Lab Module was designed and built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). To predict ITCS performance and address flight issues, this facility is operationally and functionally similar to the flight system and flight-like components were used when available. Flight software algorithms, implemented using the LabVIEW® programming language, were used for monitoring performance and controlling operation. Validation testing of the low temperature loop was completed prior to activation of the Lab module in 2001. Assembly of the moderate temperature loop was completed in 2002 and it was validated in 2003. Even before complete validation the facility was used to address flight issues, successfully demonstrating the ability to add silver biocide and to adjust the pH of the coolant.
Technical Paper

Haptics, Instrumentation, and Simulation: Technologies for Enhanced Hand Drilling Training

1999-06-05
1999-01-2283
A fundamental part of airplane manufacturing involves hand drilling of holes for fasteners (bolts and rivets). The integrity of a fastener depends on the quality of its hole, which must be properly positioned, have a circular diameter of correct dimension, and be free of surface flaws and contaminants. A common method of drilling training is for a student to drill holes under the supervision of an instructor who inspects or measures the holes and makes suggestions for improving technique. This training method has proven to be effective, but it is time-consuming and requires considerable personal attention. We have devised instrumentation to monitor critical parameters (drill orientation and forces) so that a student can receive instantaneous visual feedback. This real-time feedback provides the student a better understanding of the drilling process and allows him or her to quickly make improvements.
Technical Paper

Flight Crew Training - A Total Concept

1971-02-01
710474
To serve the requirements of the operational environment of modern jet aircraft, the flight crew training program should be kept as simple as possible and be consistent with the total information system for aircraft operation of which it is a part. Systematic tools are described which assist the course developer in optimizing the implementation of Specific Behavioral Objectives, allocating learning elements to the most cost effective learning environment, and organizing those learning elements associated with the classroom environment. Included is a discussion on the management systems applied, the development of a Learning Task Analysis, and a systems approach to course organization.
Journal Article

Estimating Return on Investment for SAVI (a Model-Based Virtual Integration Process)

2011-10-18
2011-01-2576
The System Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI) program is a collaboration of industry, government, and academic organizations within the Aerospace Vehicle System Institute (AVSI) with the goal of structuring a new integration process that relies on a “single-truth” architectural framework. The SAVI approach of “Integrate, then Build” provides a modern distributed development environment which arrests the propagation of requirements errors through the development life cycle. It does so by capturing design assumptions and shared properties of the system design in an authoritative, annotated architectural model. This reference model provides a common, analyzable framework for confirming that system requirements remain complete, consistent, and correct at all levels of system decomposition. Core concepts of SAVI include extensive use of model-based system engineering tools and use of a “single-truth” reference architectural model.
Technical Paper

Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) Moves Theory to Practice at a System Level to Effect Lean Outcomes on the Shop Floor

2009-11-10
2009-01-3169
This paper will describe the Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) system level project operated as a partnership among Boeing business units, universities, and suppliers. The focus is on the successful implementation and sharing of technology solutions to develop a model based, multi-product pulsed line factory of the future. The EAIT philosophy presented in this paper focuses on a collaborative environment that is tightly woven with the Lean Initiatives at Boeing's satellite development center. The prototype is comprised of a platform that includes a wireless instrumentation system, rapid bonding materials and virtual test of guidance hardware there are examples of collaborative development in collaboration with suppliers. Wireless tools and information systems are also being developed across the Boeing Company. Virtual reality development will include university partners in the US and India.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable and Flexible Track Positioning System for Aircraft Manufacturing Processes

2007-09-17
2007-01-3781
The Boeing Company has recently developed a portable positioning system based upon its patented flexible vacuum track technology, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The positioning system, referred to as Mini Flex Track, was initially developed as an inexpensive drilling system that minimizes machine setup time, does not require extensive operator training due to its simple user interface, is general purpose enough to be used in varying airplane applications, and meets strict accuracy requirements for aircraft manufacturing. The system consists of a variable length vacuum track that conforms to a range of contours, a two-axis numerically-controlled positioning carriage that controls machine motion, an additional rail perpendicular to the vacuum rail that provides transverse motion, and an end effector that can perform various tasks.
Technical Paper

Development and Deployment of Orbital Drilling at Boeing

2006-09-12
2006-01-3152
Orbital hole drilling technology has shown a great deal of promise for cost savings on applications in the aerospace industry where burr free, high quality holes are a necessity. This presentation will show some of the basic research on orbital drilling development Boeing is doing with the Advanced Manufacturing Research Center at Sheffield University and the deployment of the technology into production programs within The Boeing Company.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Ice Shapes on Oscillating Airfoils

2011-06-13
2011-38-0015
The desire to operate rotorcraft in icing conditions has renewed the interest in developing high-fidelity analysis methods to predict ice accumulation and the ensuing rotor performance degradation. A subset of providing solutions for rotorcraft icing problems is predicting two-dimensional ice accumulation on rotor airfoils. While much has been done to predict ice for fixed-wing airfoil sections, the rotorcraft problem has two additional challenges: first, rotor airfoils tend to experience flows in higher Mach number regimes, often creating glaze ice which is harder to predict; second, rotor airfoils oscillate in pitch to produce balance across the rotor disk. A methodology and validation test cases are presented to solve the rotor airfoil problem as an important step to solving the larger rotorcraft icing problem. The process couples Navier-Stokes CFD analysis with the ice accretion analysis code, LEWICE3D.
Technical Paper

Burr Prevention and Minimization for the Aerospace Industry

1999-06-05
1999-01-2292
Burr research is undeniably highly complex. In order to advance understanding of the process involved several techniques are being implemented. First a detailed and thorough examination of the burr forming process is undertaken. The technique is difficult, intricate and time consuming, but delivers a large amount of vital physical data. This information is then used in the construction of empirical models and, in some case lead to development of FEM models. Finally using the model as a template, related burr formation problems that have not been physically examined can be simulated and the results used to control process planning resulting in the reduction of burr formation. We highlight this process by discussing current areas of research being followed at the University of California in collaboration with Boeing and the Consortium on Deburring and Edge Finishing (CODEF).
Technical Paper

Autonomous Flight Control Development on the Active Aeroelastic Wing Aircraft

2004-11-02
2004-01-3116
A highly modified F/A-18 aircraft is being used to demonstrate that aeroelastic wing twist can be used to roll a high performance aircraft. A production F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft uses a combination of aileron deflection, differential horizontal tail deflection and differential leading edge flap deflection to roll the aircraft at various Mach numbers and altitudes. The Active Aeroelastic Wing program is demonstrating that aeroelastic wing twist can be used in lieu of the horizontal tail to provide autonomous roll control at high dynamic pressures. Aerodynamic and loads data have been gathered from the Phase I AAW flight test program. Now control laws have been developed to exploit aeroelastic wing twist and provide autonomous flight control of the AAW aircraft during Phase II. Wing control surfaces are being deflected in non-standard ways to create aeroelastic wing twist and develop the required rolling moments without use of the horizontal tail.
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