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Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

2006-08-30
2006-01-1987
In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Commercial Transport Aircraft Aerodynamics at Extreme Flight Conditions

2002-11-05
2002-01-2912
A series of low-speed static and dynamic wind tunnel tests of a commercial transport configuration over an extended angle of attack/sideslip envelope was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The test results are intended for use in the development of an aerodynamic simulation database for determining aircraft flight characteristics at extreme and loss-of-control conditions. This database will be used for the development of loss-of-control prevention or mitigation systems, pilot training for recovery from such conditions, and accident investigations. An overview of the wind-tunnel tests is presented and the results of the tests are evaluated with respect to traditional simulation database development techniques for modeling extreme conditions to identify regions where simulation fidelity should be addressed.
Technical Paper

Virtual Laboratory (VLAB) Concept Applied in a Life Science Laboratory

1998-07-13
981792
As pieces of the International Space Station (ISS) enter their test phase, access to information and data from the test laboratories must be made immediately available to analysts, managers, and customers. The Virtual Laboratory (VLAB) concept provides remote access to laboratory test data and other information, indirectly as archived data or directly as real-time data off the test bed. We applied VLAB to a life support system hardware test (the Trace Contaminant Control System, TCCS) in the Life Support Technology Center (LSTC). In this paper we describe the VLAB concept in the context of the TCCS hardware test.
Technical Paper

Use of Electromagnetic and Vacuum Forces on Aircraft Assembly

2002-10-01
2002-01-2630
Decades ago our innovative grandfathers developed the first automated riveting machines based on hard automation using kinematics and tools attached to a C-frame. The C-frame serves multiple functions: First, it holds the upper and lower tools in fixed positions relative to each other; second, it translates upper active tooling forces to the lower tool; and third, it embraces the part placed between the upper and lower tool. C-frames and newly developed yoke, ring and gantry machines, used for low level (first, second) fuselage and wing assembly are growing in size to exorbitant proportions to satisfy requirements of larger and larger structures. High costs are dictated by massive kinematics and complex controls that provide stability, precision, and process speed. All this is mainly needed because we have to carry mechanical forces around the part, from upper to lower tool along the C-frame, gantry, yoke, bridge, etc.
Technical Paper

Universal Splice Machine

2007-09-17
2007-01-3782
There is an increasing demand in the aerospace industry for automated machinery that is portable, flexible and light. This paper will focus on a joint project between BROETJE-Automation and Boeing called the Universal Splice Machine (USM). The USM is a portable, flexible and lightweight automated drilling and fastening machine for longitudinal splices. The USM is the first machine of its kind that has the ability not only to drill holes without the need to deburr, (burrless drilling) but also to insert fasteners. The Multi Function End Effector (MFEE) runs on a rail system that is mounted directly on the fuselage using a vacuum cup system. Clamp up is achieved through the use of an advanced electromagnet. A control cart follows along next to the fuselage and includes an Automated Fastener Feeding System. This paper will show how this new advancement has the capabilities to fill gaps in aircraft production that automation has never reached before.
Technical Paper

Traceable Part Batching Performance Modeling: A Simulation Case Study

2004-09-21
2004-01-2822
This paper addresses a simulation modeling case study of a batching process. The batching process exists in a multi-server, multi-queue aircraft component manufacturing system where all parts and batches are serial numbered for traceability. Every lot of parts requires a unique set of serial numbers and the sequence of batches is required to follow the airplane master production schedule. The study goal was to identify and provide solutions to shorten arrival time differences among parts going to the same batch in a system of more than 100 shared processes. Queue lengths, resource utilization, bottlenecks, and various scenario comparisons were yielded from simulation modeling exercises.
Technical Paper

The Automated NC Mini-Driller

1999-10-06
1999-01-3436
The introduction of a new derivative to an existing aircraft model poses many decisions regarding old versus new. In the case of the introduction of the extended range 767 (the 767-400ER), an entirely new wing design prompted the examination of the then current assembly processes and tooling. The hesitation to build new drill templates for use in the traditional method of second stage wing spar assembly inspired Tool Engineering Management to request the investigation of a low cost automated drilling apparatus. As a result, the Boeing Automated Tools Group and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) developed and implemented mobile numerically controlled mini-drilling machines for post-ASAT I assembly-drilling operations.
Technical Paper

The 747-400 Dreamlifter - Overview & Mission

2007-09-17
2007-01-3888
The development of new commercial airliners is a very risky proposition. To get it right, airframe manufacturers must balance new technologies and manufacturing methods with global participation and business considerations. The 787 is Boeing's popular new wide body aircraft incorporating state of the art composites design and manufacturing methods. But new technology alone is not enough. A new logistics system was needed to integrate global partners in order to fully benefit from new technologies. The Boeing 747-400 Dreamlifter is a special purpose 747-400 modified to transport Boeing 787 airplane components through various stages of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE AUGMENTOR WING CONCEPT

1970-02-01
700812
A review is made of previously reported status of the augmentor wing concept, including test work of de Havilland Aircraft of Canada and the NASA Ames Research Center. More recent NASA data which formed the basis for proceeding with a flight research vehicle program on the Buffalo CV-7A are discussed. This background is used to show potential application to a turbofan-powered production airplane concept whose highly integrated propulsion and aerodynamics show promise for a very quiet STOL. Proposed future augmentor wing development programs are also briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

System Software Safety Assessment Process for Certification of Commercial and Military Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3390
For the next 10 years new world-wide communication, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) requirements are being incrementally imposed upon military aircraft avionics, and upon the Air Traffic Control community, by the Aviation Administrations of most nations, including the FAA and the JAA. These requirements are the result of a decade of study by the United Nations' International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to improve aviation safety and efficiency. In 2001 the USAF mandated compliance to the CNS requirements for its military aircraft, which is called Navigation Safety (NS) GATM by the USAF. By complying with these requirements, the military aircraft can maintain their ability to fly internationally without CNS restrictions. The FAA requires that flight software be assessed, developed and/or verified (proven) with a methodology recommended by the RTCA document called DO-178B for software based systems.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Commercial Transport Airplane During Stall and Post-Stall Flight

2004-11-02
2004-01-3100
As part of NASA’s Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twin-jet transport aircraft crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss-of-control flight conditions. Piloted simulation studies were conducted to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted in a flaps-up configuration and covered the approach-to-stall, stall and post-stall flight regimes. Qualitative pilot comments and preliminary comparison with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the significant unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified.
Technical Paper

Simulation Enhanced Work Instructions for Aircraft Assemblies

1998-06-02
981861
The Boeing Company is developing and implementing the tools for the 21st Century for product development with their Design Manufacturing and Producibility Simulation (DMAPS) program. DMAPS combines the best of people, hardware and software tools commercially available to develop product and process simulation applications. The DMAPS toolset enhances the process of preparing concept layouts, assembly layouts and build-to-packages. Comprised of an Integrated Product and Process Team (IPPT), DMAPS produces products faster and with higher quality. The result is a process that eliminates costly changes and rework, and provides all IPPT's the tools and training necessary to perform their tasks right the first time. Boeing applies DMAPS tools to a variety of existing and new programs to build more affordable products. Savings goals set forth by the program are shown in Figure 1.
Journal Article

Self-Configuring Hybrid Duct System and Attachment Technologies for Environmental Control Systems

2009-11-10
2009-01-3277
Environmental Control Systems (ECS) ducts on airplanes are primarily fabricated from aluminum or thermoset composites, depending on temperature and pressure requirements. It is imperative to fabricate lightweight, cost effective, durable, and repairable systems with minimal tooling. It is also important that the duct systems are easy to assemble even with alignment issues resulting from structural variations, tolerance accumulation, variation from thermal expansion of different materials, and inherent duct stiffness. These requirements create an opportunity and need for a technology that can address all of these issues, while increasing performance at the same time. This report provides a background on current ECS ducting systems.
Technical Paper

Power Quality Specification Development for More Electric Airplane Architectures

2002-10-29
2002-01-3206
Power quality has become a subject of increased attention for electrical power systems on both commercial and military aircraft. Several power quality guidelines and specification documents exist that govern today's power system operation and the contributing characteristics of electrical load equipment. This paper presents power quality requirements for future Boeing commercial airplanes, driven by advances in aerospace applications of power electronic equipment, increased load demand and complexity, as well as new power system architectures. The influence of new equipment types on electrical system power quality is described including the effects of motor controllers, AC power converters, and large dynamic loads. The impact of power type classifications such as variable frequency AC power and multiple DC voltage levels is also discussed. Simulation results are presented to develop and validate these power quality requirements.
Technical Paper

Portable Fastener Delivery and Installation System

2003-09-08
2003-01-2953
The Portable Fastener Delivery System or PFDS, has been developed at the Boeing St. Louis facility to streamline the manual fastener installation process. The PFDS delivers various fasteners, on demand, through a delivery tube to an installation tool used by the operator to install the fasteners in an aircraft assembly. This paper describes the PFDS in its current configuration, along with the associated Huck® International (now Alcoa Fastening Systems) installation tooling, as it is being implemented on the F/A-18E/F Nosebarrel Skinning application. As a “portable” system, the PFDS cart can be rolled to any location on the shop floor it might be needed. The system uses a removable storage cassette to cache many sizes and types of fasteners in the moderate quantities that might be required for a particular assembly task. The operator begins the installation sequence by calling for the particular fastener grip length needed using a wireless control pendant.
Technical Paper

Oxygen/Nitrogen Supply and Distribution for the United States On-Orbit Segment of the International Space Station

1997-07-01
972381
The on-orbit oxygen and nitrogen supply for the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is provided in tanks mounted on the outside of the Airlock module. Gasses are supplied, for distribution to users within the USOS, via pressure regulators in the Airlock. The on-orbit storage can be replenished with gas that is scavenged from the Space Shuttle, or by direct replacement of the tanks. The supply and distribution system are described in this paper. The users of the gasses are identified. The system architecture is presented. Operational considerations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Operating Procedures Associated with Noise Generated by the Supersonic Transport

1965-02-01
650214
The noise characteristics of The Boeing Company variable sweep supersonic transport are described. It is predicted that the noise levels of this airplane will be lower than those of current intercontinental subsonic jets. However, the noise generated by the supersonic transport could be substantially modified by the way the aircraft will be operated. The flexibility in operation afforded by the Boeing supersonic transport for achieving low noise levels, both airport and in the community, is reviewed. No major noise problems are anticipated because of SST operations at present airfields.
Technical Paper

Multi-Fuel Reforming and Fuel Cell Systems for Aviation Applications: The Role of Bio-Diesel and its Synergy with Global Interests

2008-11-11
2008-01-2855
The rising cost of fuel prices, in part due to the perception of diminishing supplies of common fuelstocks, as well as worldwide attention to reducing emissions has pushed the need to explore the use of many alternative fuels. The aviation industry has been under recent scrutiny due to its contribution of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Current contribution of GHG by airplanes is relatively small, 2% of the total GHG emissions, but world air traffic is anticipated to continue to grow and may have a corresponding increase in emissions. Both commercial and government aviation sectors have efforts to seek ways to lower fuel consumption through efficiency and reduce emissions. Development of a suitable alternative fuel that can be seamlessly used in place of conventional jet fuel is desirable. A strategy to enable this goal is to be fuel flexible; utilizing an array of fuels from bio-diesel to current jet fuel.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Commercial Airplanes Service Request Process Flows

2009-11-10
2009-01-3199
The repairing of commercial aircraft is a complex task. Service engineers at Boeing's Commercial Aviation Services group specialize in providing crucial repair information and technical support for its many customers. This paper details factors that influence Boeing's response time to service requests and how to improve it. Information pertaining to over 5000 service requests from 2008 and 2009 was collected. From analysis of this data set, important findings were discovered. One major finding is that between 6 and 8 percent of service requests are late because time/date stamps used in reports were created in a different time zone.
Technical Paper

Military Rotorcraft Flight Test Safety in the Age of Joint Ventures

1999-04-13
1999-01-1437
This paper is an explanation of some of the Flight Test Safety (FTS) methods used to reduce the risk associated with military rotorcraft development. Two flight test programs are addressed, the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor and the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. A short history of the development of each program is provided as background information. Some of the challenges and strengths of joint ventures are also identified and discussed. Four critical elements of an FTS program are identified: 1) Organizational Risk Management (ORM), 2) issue/anomaly resolution, 3) incident recording and corrective action documentation and 4) interface between FTS and other organizations. Methods used in the two programs to address these elements are reviewed and can be applied to other flight test programs.
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