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Technical Paper

Impact of Vehicle Changes Upon Gear Lubricant Requirements

The authors provide evidence indicating that oils meeting only the minimum requirements of API GL-5 do not always provide adequate gear protection, especially in severe duty applications. Increases in commercial vehicle power and loading have accentuated the need for oils of greater load carrying ability. A modified version of the standard L-37 test may help identify oils that possess superior durability and thermal characteristics. Future gear lubricants should provide improved fuel economy, increased manual transmission life; and frictional characteristics that allow noise free performance in limited slip differentials.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Automotive Gear Lubrication

This paper provides an overview of gear lubrication related to automotive equipment. A brief background in various aspects of lubrication, including lubrication theory, lubricant evaluation, performance designations, and formulation technology, is presented. This information is designed to assist those involved in the selection of automotive gear lubricants.
Technical Paper

Developing Heavy Duty Diesel Lubricants to Meet the Extended Service Interval Challenge

Two prominent trends are facing diesel engine builders and their customers, environmental regulations and cost containment. Increasingly stringent exhaust emissions regulations have necessitated major changes in diesel engine design. Combustion temperatures and fuel injection pressures continue to rise. This and other factors, such as lower oil consumption for exhaust particulate reduction, place greater demands on crankcase lubricating oils. Another prominent environmentally related cost factor facing fleet operators is that of waste oil management. The inventory and disposal of used lubricants must now be handled in accordance with regulated guidelines and their associated costs. To compensate, new lubricant categories have been designed in both North America and Europe, such that 1994 and later emission controlled engines will perform as reliably as their earlier counterparts.