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Technical Paper

Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate-Dispersant Interactions: Effects on Solution Behavior and Wear

Interactions between a Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP) and three different commercially available succinimide dispersants were observed through changes in solutions behavior, as determined by viscometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and four-ball tests. The viscometric response observed for two component blends of ZDP and succinimide dispersant in white oil changed as a function of the molar Zn to N ratio, indicative of specific interactions. The break in the viscometric response curve occurred at Zn:N=0.13 for all three succinimide dispersants. FTIR spectra of the same ZDP-dispersant blends were examined and similar Zn:N dependencies were observed. Four-ball tests measuring wear scar diameter, seizure load and weld load showed a dependence on the Zn to N ratio similar to that observed by viscometry. At very low Zn to N ratios wear and seizure load were decreased, while at higher ratios the seizure and weld loads were increased over that for ZDP alone.
Technical Paper

Variability of Intake Valve Deposit Measurements in the BMW Vehicle Intake Valve Deposit Test

Despite the many years of widespread use of the BMW Intake Valve Deposit (IVD) vehicle test, relatively little has been published quantifying the variation in the test procedure. This paper presents an analysis of the variability in the BMW test. Though results from 8045 km (8K; 5,000 mile) tests rather than 16090 km (16K; 10,000 mile) are highlighted due to the size of the available database and relative sensitivity of the data, analysis suggests that variation at 8K is representative of 16K variation. A square root transformation of average deposit weight at 8K, though more cumbersome than the more common log transformation, is found to be the most appropriate way to eliminate the dependence of variation on the absolute level of deposits. Within-car variation is found to account for over half of the test-to-test variation, contradicting the notion that car-to-car differences are the dominant source of variability.
Technical Paper

Understanding Oil Aging in Extended Drain Axle & Transmission Applications

Extended drain of axle and transmission lubricants has gained wide acceptance in both passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Understanding how the lubricant changes during extended drain operations is crucial in determining appropriate lubricants and drain intervals for these applications. A suitable aging screen test with an established relationship to field performance is essential. Over the years numerous methods have been studied (DKA, GFC, ISOT, ASTM L-60) with varying degrees of success1,2,3. Current methods tend to be overly severe in comparison to field experience, hence the need for further work in this area. As a result of recent work, a lubricant aging test method has been developed which shows good correlation with field experience, giving us an effective tool in the development of long drain oils.
Technical Paper

Unbiased Engine Test Evaluation

In API engine oil licensing, candidate oils must meet the performance requirements of category defined engine tests. While API category engine tests are developed to target a theoretical performance standard, it is rare that the cost to test and approve oils is understood. Given that engine tests are an integral part of oil evaluation, understanding of engine test value is necessary. Therefore, measurements of value are presented as Unbiased Engine Test Evaluation (UETE). UETE evaluates an engine test's draw on time and money resources by estimating the average number of tests required before a candidate oil will pass the category defined engine tests. A pilot study using the API CH-4 Category is presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Passenger Car Motor Oil Detergent System on Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) GF-2 specification requires Passenger Car Motor oils to provide enhanced fuel economy in a modern low friction engine (ASTM Sequence VIA). The durability of this fuel economy improvement is becoming increasingly important and will be address in the successor to the Sequence VIA, the Sequence VIB, which is currently under development for ILSAC GF-3. Previous investigations have indicated that the choice of detergent system and friction modifier has a large impact on the fuel economy of a lubricant. As a result of a study undertaken to further investigate these effects in a 1994 Ford Crown Victoria running the EPA Federal Test Procedure, a significant impact on tailpipe emissions was discovered. Detergent system affected both regulated emissions (hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions), and non-regulated emissions (carbon dioxide emissions).
Technical Paper

The Effect Of Mixing Diesel Fuels Additized With Kerosene and Cloud Point Depressants

Low temperature flow improvers help refiners meet diesel fuel cold flow specifications and optimize profits. However, some additives, cloud point depressants in particular, are under scrutiny since there have been cases where they interacted with other cold flow improvers and became less effective at depressing the cloud point of the diesel fuel[1]. This second paper in a series of studies[2] examines what effect mixing cloud point depressed diesel fuel with other cloud point depressed diesel fuel or with diesel fuel diluted with kerosene will have on the resultant fuel mixture's cloud point. The data show that cloud point depressants can be used safely and effectively with kerosene blended fuels and in conjunction with other cloud point depressants.
Technical Paper

Step Forward In Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction: System Incorporating a Novel Low Emission Diesel Fuel Combined With a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

Water-emulsified diesel fuel technology has been proven to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) simultaneously at relatively low cost compared to other pollution-reducing strategies. The value of this technology is that it requires absolutely no engine adjustments or modifications to reduce harmful emissions. Technologies that break the NOx -particulate trade-off are virtually non-existent, therefore understanding how the water contained in an emulsified fuel can reduce both NOx and PM simultaneously is critical. To understand this phenomenon, emulsified fuels with varying water levels (0 to 20%) were evaluated in a multi-cylinder marine engine using three different injection timings. This testing in an actual engine confirms that as the water level is increased the amount of NOx and PM are reduced without compromising engine performance.
Technical Paper

Rheological and Electrical Test Methods for Evaluation of Structure Development in Oil and Water Mixtures

Intentionally adding water to oil, in the laboratory, provides an indication of the oil's ability to tolerate the presence of water. Various characteristics, such as emulsion, haze or separation, may be observed. Some blends of oil and water have been shown to form structures when left undisturbed. A visual, qualitative, storage test is capable of detecting this phenomenon as the presence or absence of structure. However, the time frame of formation can be on the order of days or weeks and is sensitive to handling and temperature effects. Quantitative methods are required for any evaluation of chemistry, temperature and handling effects on the rate and strength of structure formation. This paper describes rheological and electrical methods which directly and indirectly measure the tendency to form a structure at the molecular level, yielding rate of formation and strength information.
Technical Paper

Oil Thickening in the Mack T-7 Engine Test. II—Effects of Fuel Composition on Soot Chemistry

In the first paper in this series (1)*, the extent of oil thickening for a given lubricant in the Mack T-7 engine test was found to be influenced by fuel composition. Based upon the knowledge that thickening is due to the accumulation and aggregation of soot in the oil, a set of experiments has been carried out to identify relationships between fuel chemistry and the oil thickening tendency of soot formed by fuel combustion. Three commercial diesel fuels were treated with chemical combustion aids and/or organic sulfur, and both short-duration and full-length tests were run in a Mack T-7 engine fitted with a filter designed to collect soot from the exhaust stream. A model describing the complex effects of fuel chemistry on the oil thickening process is proposed in which fuel sulfur content is shown to influence soot content of the lubricant after ISO hours of engine operation.
Technical Paper

Oil Development for Nascar Racing

The relationship between 76 Racing and NASCAR allowed 76 Lubricants Company to work closely with Richard Childress Racing (RCR) and The Lubrizol Corporation in the development of oil screening and analytical test procedures which permit rapid evaluation of potential top-tier NASCAR race oils. The oils were designed to meet the challenge of increasingly severe engine operating parameters. This paper will discuss dynamometer testing and how properties of the oil such as viscosity grade, base fluid, and additives affect engine durability in the dynamometer test program and performance at the track in NASCAR Winston Cup Racing. Areas of growing concern include the cam/lifter contact, ring/liner contact, wrist pin/pin bore and wrist pin bushing contacts. Racing lubricants must withstand these harsh conditions for periods of 3-4 hours of continuous running.
Technical Paper

Motor Oil Thickening - A CLR Engine Test Procedure Which Correlates with Field Service

Information relative to oil thickening has been developed in road tests. Typical operating temperatures, as well as the length of time required to thicken oils in these tests, are described. A laboratory test procedure has been developed that shows a good degree of correlation with this field service. The effect of test conditions such as jacket temperature and piston ring design on oil thickening in the laboratory are described.
Technical Paper

Maintaining Diesel Fuel Performance at Lowest Cost with Fuel Additives

Multifunctional additives can compensate for lower quality diesel fuel. Performance and quality have been decreasing worldwide. This has resulted largely from increased use of heavier crude oils and more severe processing to achieve necessary fuel product mix. Fuel additives provide the refiner and marketer with an economic approach to restoring performance and quality. Additives can be formulated to solve many problems related to deposits and wear, which are major factors affecting engine power, economy, emissions and durability. They are of critical importance to the vehicle owner/ operator to maintain dependability and low operating cost. At the same time, the refiner benefits economically through the use of lower cost crudes, greater operational flexibility and ease of adjusting final fuel blends to meet specifications. Typical additive components include: detergent dispersants, inhibitors, stabilizers, cetane improvers, and flow improvers.
Technical Paper

Influence of Additive Chemistry on Manual Transmission Synchronizer Performance

The lubricant is a key component in the successful operation of a manual transmission, but it is important that the interactive effects with the friction material are understood. This paper examines the effect of several key additive components on the friction and wear performance of a single sinter composition in a carefully controlled laboratory test. In addition, the test method allows one to develop information about the shift behavior of the fluid-synchronizer material combination which provides useful information about shift quality. From the original experimental design program a predictive model was developed and an optimized formulation was tested as a validation of the results.
Technical Paper

Increasing Diesel Fuel Filter Life Through the Use of Fuel Additives

Inconsistent fuel filter life is a problem that continues to plague most heavy-duty diesel fleets. It has been proven that fuel filter life can be strongly influenced by the thermal and oxidative stability of diesel fuel that is being filtered. Filters consistently exposed to diesel fuels that produce a tar-like substance in abundance upon heating (sometimes termed “asphaltenes”) will plug far more rapidly than filters exposed to diesel fuel that does not easily form these tar-like substances. Fuel additives have long been used to maintain fuel system cleanliness and to improve diesel fuel stability. It follows logically that such additives could have a positive impact on fuel filter life by maintaining the cleanliness of the fuel filtration media. This paper reviews the laboratory evaluations and field tests that were run to compare fuel filter life in both the presence and absence of diesel fuel additives.
Technical Paper

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Additives for Performance/Distribution/Quality

Additives are an integral part of today's fuels. Together with carefully formulated base fuel composition, they contribute to efficiency, dependability and long life of gasoline and diesel engines. As a primer, this paper describes the range of chemical additives formulated for gasoline and diesel fuel and their effects. Specific functions and benefits of additives, typical use levels, and test methods for evaluation are discussed. Additive usage may be divided into three major categories: a) to satisfy desired levels of performance in engines, b) to insure delivery of uncontaminated, on-specification fuels to the end user and c) achieve necessary chemical/physical properties as manufactured by the refiner.
Technical Paper

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Additives for Performance/Distribution Quality - II

Additives are an integral part of today's fuels. Together with carefully formulated base fuel composition, they contribute to efficiency, dependability and long life of gasoline and diesel engines. As a primer, this paper describes the range of chemical additives formulated for gasoline and diesel fuel and their effects. Specific functions and benefits of additives, typical use levels, and test methods for evaluation are discussed. Additive usage may be divided into three major categories: a) to satisfy desired levels of performance in engines, b) to insure delivery of uncontaminated, on-specification fuels to the end user and c) achieve necessary chemical/physical properties as manufactured by the refiner.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Studies on ATF Friction, Part II

Interactions between automatic transmission fluid (ATF) components and composite friction materials and their effect on friction system performance continues to be an active area of interest to the automotive industry. A more fundamental understanding is needed of how base fluids, ATF additives, friction materials, and transmission design interact to produce the observed transmission system performance and durability. We herein report results from investigations carried out using a relatively thermo-oxidatively stable polyalphaolefin (PAO) base fluid treated with components representative of several additive types we previously reported to have significant negative effects on frictional performance. Secondly, we investigated a conventionally refined 150 N base oil treated with a calcium sulfonate detergent previously shown to improve friction performance.
Technical Paper

Friction and Stick-Slip Durability Testing of ATF

Recent commercial specification revisions for automatic transmission fluids (ATFs) have focused upon more stringent friction requirements. More stringent friction durability characteristics are assessed using the SAE No. 2 tester. The commercial specifications do not include provisions to evaluate low speed friction characteristics, which have been shown to relate to torque converter shudder. This paper focuses upon effective use of the Falex 6 Multispecimen Tester to evaluate friction durability and to evaluate low speed friction characteristics in conjunction with low speed friction apparatus (LVFA) testing. Falex 6 testing agreed with torque fade observed in SAE No. 2 tests. Low speed stick-slip durability characteristics were effectively differentiated for a number of field ATFs. Falex 6 testing coupled with LVFA testing was shown to correlate with field experience and other test methods related to torque converter shudder.
Technical Paper

Field Test Data Analysis Techniques

Accurate, timely field test results are necessary to develop and validate lubricants meeting frequently changing performance requirements. Field tests can also provide valuable information about performance deficiencies (e.g., soot related wear) which are not apparent in laboratory development tests. Since field tests are time intensive and increasingly expensive, it is imperative that the data generated provide meaningful results with reasonable expenditures. The data generation and analysis process are being constantly improved according to the principles of quality management. Part of the process improvement focuses on accurate, realistic treatment of the data since more variation is typically observed in field tests than in laboratory tests. One of the most difficult analytical processes occurs with oil consumption data.
Technical Paper

EMA Durability Tests on High Oleic Sunflower and Safflower Oils in Diesel Engines

This paper presents the evaluation results from the EMA durability test on 25% high oleic sunflower oil/75% diesel fuel and 25% high oleic safflower oil/75% diesel fuel. The test results from both fuels were compared to the outcome for a standard diesel fuel. The fuels were compared based on the performance and emissions results including; power output, fuel consumption, CO, CO2, NO and HC and the carbon and lacquer residue formation on the internal parts of the engine. The results indicated no significant change in engine performance for the tested fuels, throughout the duration of the investigation. The carbon and lacquer residue formations were within a normal range for both fuels in comparison to the results from the fuel for standard diesel fuel.