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Journal Article

Unique Needs of Motorcycle and Scooter Lubricants and Proposed Solutions for More Effective Performance Evaluation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0708
The operating conditions of a typical motorcycle are considerably different than those of a typical passenger car and thus require an oil capable of handling the unique demands. One primary difference, wet clutch lubrication, is already addressed by the current JASO four-stroke motorcycle engine oil specification (JASO T 903:2011). Another challenge for the oil is gear box lubrication, which may be addressed in part with the addition of a gear protection test in a future revision to the JASO specification. A third major difference between a motorcycle oil and passenger car oil is the more severe conditions an oil is subjected to within a motorcycle engine, due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities. Scooters, utilizing a transmission not lubricated by the crankcase oil, also place higher demands on an engine oil, once again due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening: Rotational Rheology Techniques to Determine Viscosity and Soot Structure in Peugeot XUD-11 BTE Drain Oils

2001-05-07
2001-01-1967
The Association des Constructeurs Européen d'Automobiles (ACEA) light duty diesel engine specifications requires a kinematic viscosity measurement technique for Peugeot XUD-11 BTE drain oils. This viscosity measurement is used to define the medium temperature dispersivity of soot in the drain oil.(1) This paper discusses the use of rotational rheology methods to measure the Newtonian character of XUD-11 drain oils. The calculation of the rate index using the Hershel Bulkley model indicates the level of non-Newtonian behavior of the drain oil and directly reflects the level of soot dispersion or agglomeration. This study shows that the more non-Newtonian the drain oil the greater the difference between kinematic and rotational viscosity measurements Oscillation (dynamic) rheological techniques are used to characterize build up of soot structure.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Part 6: Base Oil Effects

1998-10-19
982665
One of the key functions of lubricating oil additives in diesel engines is to control oil thickening caused by soot accumulation. Over the last several years, it has become apparent that the composition of the base oil used within the lubricant plays an extremely important role in the oil thickening phenomenon. In particular, oil thickening observed in the Mack T-8 test is significantly affected by the aromatic content of the base oil. We have found that the Mack T-8 thickening phenomenon is associated with high electrical activity, i.e., engine drain oils which exhibit high levels of viscosity increase show significantly higher conductivities. These findings suggest that electrical interactions are involved in soot-induced oil thickening.
Technical Paper

The Use of Life Cycle Assessment with Crankcase Lubricants to Yield Maximum Environmental Benefit – Case Study of Residual Chlorine in Lubricant

2008-10-06
2008-01-2376
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to determine quantitatively the environmental impacts of a range of options. The environmental community has used LCA to study all of the impacts of a product over its life cycle. This analysis can help to prevent instances where a greater degree of environmental harm results when changes are made to products based on consideration of impacts in only part of the life cycle. This study applies the methodology to engine lubricants, and in particular chlorine limits in engine lubricant specifications. Concern that chlorine in lubricants might contribute to emissions from vehicle exhausts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), collectively called PCDD/F, led to the introduction of chlorine limits in lubricant specifications. No direct evidence was available linking chlorine in lubricants to PCDD/F formation, but precautionary principles were used to set lubricant chlorine limits.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

2004-10-25
2004-01-3011
Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Journal Article

The Effect of Viscosity Index on the Efficiency of Transmission Lubricants

2009-11-02
2009-01-2632
The world is firmly focused on reducing energy consumption and on increasingly stringent regulations on CO2 emissions. Examples of regulatory changes include the new United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) fuel economy test procedures which were required beginning with the 2008 model year for vehicles sold in the US market. These test procedures include testing at higher speeds, more aggressive acceleration and deceleration, and hot-weather and cold-temperature testing. These revised procedures are intended to provide an estimate that more accurately reflects what consumers will experience under real world driving conditions. The U.S.
Technical Paper

The Development of CVT Fluids with Higher Friction Coefficients

2003-05-19
2003-01-1978
The development of new transmission designs continues to affect the vehicle market. Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) remain one of the more recent designs that impact the vehicle market. A desire for high belt-pulley capacity has driven studies concentrating on metal-on-metal (M/M) friction as a function of the CVT fluid. This paper describes the statistical techniques used to optimize the fluid friction as a function of additive components in a bench-scale, three-element test rig.
Technical Paper

Soot-Related Viscosity Increase - Further Studies Comparing the Mack T-11 Engine Test to Field Performance

2005-10-24
2005-01-3714
SAE 2004-01-3009 reported on work conducted to investigate the correlation between the Mack T-11 laboratory engine tests and vehicle field tests. It concluded that the T-11 test provides an effective screening tool to investigate soot-related viscosity increase, and the severity of the engine test limits provides a substantial margin of safety compared to the field. This follow-up paper continues the studies on the 2003 Mack CV713 granite dump truck equipped with an AI-427 internal EGR engine and introduces experimentation on a 2003 CX613 tractor unit equipped with an AC-460P cooled EGR engine. The paper further assesses the correlation of the field trials to the Mack T-11 engine test and reviews the impact of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulations in these engines.
Technical Paper

Soot Related Viscosity Increase - A Comparison of the Mack T-11 Engine Test to Field Performance

2004-10-25
2004-01-3009
Soot related viscosity increase has been reported as a field issue in some diesel engines and this led to the development of the T-11 engine test, incorporated in the Mack EO-N Premium Plus 03 specification (014 GS 12037). This study compares T-11 laboratory engine tests and vehicle field tests and seeks to confirm the correlation between them. The findings are that the T-11 test provides an effective screening tool to investigate soot related viscosity increase, and the severity of the engine test limits gives a substantial margin of safety compared to the field. A complementary study was conducted in conjunction with this work that focuses on the successful application of electrochemical sensor technology to diagnose soot content and soot related viscosity increase. This will be the subject of a separate paper.
Technical Paper

Review of Exhaust Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines Operating on E Diesel Fuel Blends

2003-10-27
2003-01-3283
Recently, research and testing of oxygenated diesel fuels has increased, particularly in the area of exhaust emissions. Included among the oxygenated diesel fuels are blends of diesel fuel with ethanol, or E diesel fuels. Exhaust emissions testing of E diesel fuel has been conducted by a variety of test laboratories under various conditions of engine type and operating conditions. This work reviews the existing public data from previous exhaust emissions testing on E diesel fuel and includes new testing performed in engines of varied design. Emissions data compares E diesel fuel with normal diesel fuel under conditions of different engine speeds, different engine loads and different engine designs. Variations in performance under these various conditions are observed and discussed with some potential explanations suggested.
Technical Paper

Over a Decade of LTMS

2004-06-08
2004-01-1891
The Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) is the calibration system methodology and protocol for North American engine oil and gear oil tests. This system, administered by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Test Monitoring Center (TMC) since 1992, has grown in scope from five gasoline engine tests to over two dozen gasoline, heavy duty diesel and gear oil tests ranging from several thousand dollars per test to almost one-hundred thousand dollars per test. LTMS utilizes Shewhart and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control charts of reference oil data to assist in the decision making process on the calibration status of test stands and test laboratories. Equipment calibration is the backbone step necessary in the unbiased evaluation of candidate oils for oil quality specifications.
Technical Paper

Opportunity for Diesel Emission Reductions Using Advanced Catalysts and Water Blend Fuel

2000-03-06
2000-01-0182
This paper features the results of emission tests conducted on diesel oxidation catalysts, and the combination of diesel oxidation catalysts and water blend fuel (diesel fuel continuous emulsion). Vehicle chassis emission tests were conducted using an urban bus. The paper reviews the impact and potential benefits of combining catalyst and water blend diesel fuel technologies to reduce exhaust emissions from diesel engines.
Technical Paper

On-Board Sensor Systems to Diagnose Condition of Diesel Engine Lubricants - Focus on Soot

2004-10-25
2004-01-3010
Soot is a typical byproduct of the diesel fuel combustion process, and a portion of the soot inevitably enters an engine's crankcase. A key functionality of a diesel engine lubricant is to disperse and suspend soot so that larger-particle agglomerations are prevented. The role of soot agglomeration in abrasive engine wear and lubricant viscosity increase is the subject of a continuing investigation; however, what is generally known is that once an engine lubricant loses its ability to control soot and a rapid viscosity increase begins, the lubricant has reached the end of its useful life and should be changed to maximize engine performance and life. This issue of soot related viscosity increase is of such importance that the Mack T-11 engine test was developed as a laboratory tool to evaluate lubricants. The newly proposed Mack EO-N Premium Plus - 03 specification includes a T-11 performance requirement.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part IV: Using a New Split-μ Simulation Test for Optimizing Friction Material-Lubricant Hardware Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2230
Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted through many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3271 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screen Test Development) a testing tool was developed to correlate to full-vehicle split-mu testing for limited slip differential applications using a low speed SAE #2 friction test rig. The SAE #2 Split-Mu Simulation is a full clutch pack component level friction test. The purpose of this test is to allow optimization of the friction material-lubricant hardware system in order to deliver consistent friction performance over the life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part III: Using an Improved Break-Away Friction Screen Test to Investigate Fundamental Friction Material-Lubricant Interactions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2231
Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted in many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems, and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3270 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Slip Screen Test Development), a testing tool was developed to simulate a limited slip differential break-away event using a Full Scale-Low Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). The purpose of this test was to investigate the fundamental interactions between lubricants and friction materials. The original break-away friction screen test, which used actual vehicle clutch plates and a single friction surface, proved a useful tool in screening new friction modifier technology.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3271
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

2002-10-21
2002-01-2849
The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications

2007-10-29
2007-01-4107
Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper

Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability – A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils

2018-04-03
2018-01-0934
Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customers’ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10 years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads – well into the traditional ‘knock-limited’ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.
Technical Paper

Jet Fuel Thermal Stability Additives - Electrical Conductivity and Interactions with Static Dissipator Additive

2002-05-06
2002-01-1652
The primary goal of the USAF JP-8+100 thermal stability additive (TSA) program is to increase the heat-sink capacity of JP-8 fuel by 50%. Current engine design is limited by a fuel nozzle temperature of 325°F (163°C); JP-8+100 has been designed to allow a 100°F increase in nozzle temperatures up to 425°F (218°C) without serious fuel degradation leading to excessive deposition. Previous studies have shown that TSA formulations increase the electrical conductivity of base jet fuel. In the present paper, further characterization of this phenomenon is described, as well as interactions of newer TSAs with combinations of SDA and other surface-active species in hydrocarbons, will be discussed.
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