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Journal Article

Unique Needs of Motorcycle and Scooter Lubricants and Proposed Solutions for More Effective Performance Evaluation

The operating conditions of a typical motorcycle are considerably different than those of a typical passenger car and thus require an oil capable of handling the unique demands. One primary difference, wet clutch lubrication, is already addressed by the current JASO four-stroke motorcycle engine oil specification (JASO T 903:2011). Another challenge for the oil is gear box lubrication, which may be addressed in part with the addition of a gear protection test in a future revision to the JASO specification. A third major difference between a motorcycle oil and passenger car oil is the more severe conditions an oil is subjected to within a motorcycle engine, due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities. Scooters, utilizing a transmission not lubricated by the crankcase oil, also place higher demands on an engine oil, once again due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening: Rotational Rheology Techniques to Determine Viscosity and Soot Structure in Peugeot XUD-11 BTE Drain Oils

The Association des Constructeurs Européen d'Automobiles (ACEA) light duty diesel engine specifications requires a kinematic viscosity measurement technique for Peugeot XUD-11 BTE drain oils. This viscosity measurement is used to define the medium temperature dispersivity of soot in the drain oil.(1) This paper discusses the use of rotational rheology methods to measure the Newtonian character of XUD-11 drain oils. The calculation of the rate index using the Hershel Bulkley model indicates the level of non-Newtonian behavior of the drain oil and directly reflects the level of soot dispersion or agglomeration. This study shows that the more non-Newtonian the drain oil the greater the difference between kinematic and rotational viscosity measurements Oscillation (dynamic) rheological techniques are used to characterize build up of soot structure.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Part 6: Base Oil Effects

One of the key functions of lubricating oil additives in diesel engines is to control oil thickening caused by soot accumulation. Over the last several years, it has become apparent that the composition of the base oil used within the lubricant plays an extremely important role in the oil thickening phenomenon. In particular, oil thickening observed in the Mack T-8 test is significantly affected by the aromatic content of the base oil. We have found that the Mack T-8 thickening phenomenon is associated with high electrical activity, i.e., engine drain oils which exhibit high levels of viscosity increase show significantly higher conductivities. These findings suggest that electrical interactions are involved in soot-induced oil thickening.
Journal Article

The Effect of Viscosity Index on the Efficiency of Transmission Lubricants

The world is firmly focused on reducing energy consumption and on increasingly stringent regulations on CO2 emissions. Examples of regulatory changes include the new United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) fuel economy test procedures which were required beginning with the 2008 model year for vehicles sold in the US market. These test procedures include testing at higher speeds, more aggressive acceleration and deceleration, and hot-weather and cold-temperature testing. These revised procedures are intended to provide an estimate that more accurately reflects what consumers will experience under real world driving conditions. The U.S.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Heavy Loads on Light Duty Vehicle Axle Operating Temperature

With the continued growth of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) market in North America in recent years more emphasis has been placed on fluid performance in these vehicles. In addition to fuel economy the key performance area sought by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in general has been temperature reduction in the axle. This is being driven by warranty claims that show that one of the causes of axle failure in these type vehicles is related to overheating. The overheating is, in turn, caused by high load situations, e.g., pulling a large trailer at or near the maximum rated load limit for the vehicle, especially when the vehicle or its main subcomponents are relatively new. The excessive temperature generally leads to premature failure of seals, bearings and gears. The choice of lubricant can have a significant effect on the peak and stabilized operating temperature under these extreme conditions.
Technical Paper

The Development of Predictive Models for Non-Acidic Lubricity Agents (NALA) using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR)

This study describes the use of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) to develop predictive models for non-acidic Lubricity agents. The work demonstrates the importance of separating certain chemical families to give better and more robust equations rather than grouping a whole data set together. These models can then be used as important tools in further development work by predicting activities of new compounds before actual synthesis/testing.
Technical Paper

Systematic Formulation of Efficient and Durable Axle Lubricants for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

Consumer demand for size, weight and horsepower has dictated a prominent role for sport utility vehicles and light trucks in the product lines of major North American automobile manufacturers. Inherently less efficient than passenger cars, these vehicles will be facing more stringent light duty CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards beginning in 2005 when mileage targets will be elevated to 21 mpg; this figure will be further increased to 22.2 mpg by 2007. In order to accommodate both public demand and CAFE requirements, vehicle manufacturers are seeking ways to improve fuel economy through design and material modifications as well as through improvements in lubrication. The axle lubricant may have an important impact on fuel economy, and axle lubricants can be tailored to deliver higher levels of operating efficiency over a wide range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Soot Related Viscosity Increase - A Comparison of the Mack T-11 Engine Test to Field Performance

Soot related viscosity increase has been reported as a field issue in some diesel engines and this led to the development of the T-11 engine test, incorporated in the Mack EO-N Premium Plus 03 specification (014 GS 12037). This study compares T-11 laboratory engine tests and vehicle field tests and seeks to confirm the correlation between them. The findings are that the T-11 test provides an effective screening tool to investigate soot related viscosity increase, and the severity of the engine test limits gives a substantial margin of safety compared to the field. A complementary study was conducted in conjunction with this work that focuses on the successful application of electrochemical sensor technology to diagnose soot content and soot related viscosity increase. This will be the subject of a separate paper.
Technical Paper

Shifting from Automatic to Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Look at Fluid Technology Requirements

New technologies are being commercialized across the automotive industry to address demands for improved fuel economy, emissions reductions, and improved customer satisfaction. Push-belt continuously variable transmissions (b-CVTs) are beginning to command a significant percentage of the market now dominated by manual and conventional automatic transmissions. In addition, automobile manufacturers plan to introduce the first traction drive toroidal-CVTs to the market place within the next five years. A review of the relative benefits and limitations of each of these automatic transmissions exists in the literature. In this paper we consider how the performance requirements of each of these automatic transmission systems impact automatic transmission fluid technology. The physical characteristics and screen test performance of two commercial ATFs, a b-CVTF, and two traction fluids were examined.
Technical Paper

Review of Exhaust Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines Operating on E Diesel Fuel Blends

Recently, research and testing of oxygenated diesel fuels has increased, particularly in the area of exhaust emissions. Included among the oxygenated diesel fuels are blends of diesel fuel with ethanol, or E diesel fuels. Exhaust emissions testing of E diesel fuel has been conducted by a variety of test laboratories under various conditions of engine type and operating conditions. This work reviews the existing public data from previous exhaust emissions testing on E diesel fuel and includes new testing performed in engines of varied design. Emissions data compares E diesel fuel with normal diesel fuel under conditions of different engine speeds, different engine loads and different engine designs. Variations in performance under these various conditions are observed and discussed with some potential explanations suggested.
Journal Article

Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Requirements of an Advanced Designed High Performance, Fuel Efficient Low Emissions V-6 Engine

Modern high power density gasoline fueled engines place an ever-increasing demand on the engine lubricant. In this study, it is shown that advances in engine design to increase performance, improve fuel economy and lower emissions have outpaced the development of typical commercial engine lubricants. Advanced designed engines began to experience oil starvation as a result of a combination of driving cycles, oil quality and poor maintenance practices. The cause was traced to excessive increases in borderline pumping viscosity as measured by MRV TP-1 (ASTM D4684). Used oil analysis for MRV TP-1 showed viscosity greatly increased in excess of stay-in-grade requirements and in many cases the crankcase lubricant was solid at the temperature appropriate for its viscosity grade. However, at the same time CCS values were in grade or only slightly (1W grade) elevated.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability – A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils

Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customers’ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10 years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads – well into the traditional ‘knock-limited’ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.
Technical Paper

Improved Friction Modifiers to Aid in Future Fuel Economy Targets

Requirements to improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase, spurred on by agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. Lubricants can play a role in aiding fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications that require fuel economy improvements. Part of this improvement is due to achieving suitable viscometric properties in the lubricant, but additional improvements can be made using friction modifier (FM) compounds. The use of FMs in lubricants is not new, with traditional approaches being oleochemical-based derivatives such as glycerol mono-oleate and molybdenum-based compounds. However, to achieve even greater improvements, new new friction modifying compounds are needed to help deliver the full potential required from next generation lubricants. This work looks at the potential improvements available from new FM technology over and above the traditional FM compounds.
Technical Paper

How Polymer Architecture Affects Permanent Viscosity Loss of Multigrade Lubricants

Multigrade automotive lubricants contain polymeric viscosity modifiers which enable the oil to provide adequate hydrodynamic lubrication at high temperatures and good starting/pumping performance at low temperatures. Under operating conditions in engines, transmissions and gear boxes, polymeric additives undergo both temporary and permanent viscosity loss. The former is caused by flow orientation and the latter by molecular chain scission. Whatever the mechanism, original equipment manufacturers are interested in maintaining a minimum level of hydrodynamic viscosity from oil change to oil change. This is often expressed as a “stay-in-grade” requirement. Commercial viscosity modifiers (VM) span a wide range of chemistries and molecular architectures.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants for a Global Market: Formulating a Global Additive Technology

Regulations reducing emissions worldwide are the driving force behind the trend to converging diesel engine design strategies among manufacturers. This results in common engine lubricant performance and the need for a global performance platform for diesel engine lubricants (1, 2). This paper chronicles a multi-year project that defined a diesel engine lubricant platform to meet global Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) requirements. The design of the additive chemistry required to achieve the platform targets is described. Demonstration of the performance capabilities of the new technology in engine tests that constitute international specifications and field testing is also discussed. The results suggest that formulating a heavy duty diesel engine oil to meet a variety of worldwide lubricant requirements results in a more robust formulation, outperforming oils designed to meet only regional requirements.
Technical Paper

Extending Injector Life in Methanol-Fueled DDC Engines Through Engine Oil and Fuel Additives

Considerable development effort has shown that conventional diesel engine lubricating oil specifications do not define the needs for acceptable injector life in methanol-fueled, two-stroke cycle diesel engines. A cooperative program was undertaken to formulate an engine oil-fuel additive system which was aimed at improving performance with methanol fueling. The performance feature of greatest concern was injector tip plugging. A Taguchi matrix using a 100 hour engine test was designed around an engine oil formulation which had performed well in a 500 hour engine test using a simulated urban bus cycle. Parameters investigated included: detergent level and type, dispersant choice, and zinc dithiophosphate level. In addition, the influence of a supplemental fuel additive was assessed. Analysis of the Taguchi Matrix data shows the fuel additive to have the most dramatic beneficial influence on maintaining injector performance.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on the Friction and Emissions of a Light-Duty, 2.2L Direct - Injection - Diesel Engine Part 1 - Engine Test Results

The effects of lubricating oil on friction and engine-out emissions in a light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine were investigated. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity (SAE 5W-20 to 10W-40), friction modifier (FM) level and chemistry (MoDTC and organic FM), and basestock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Tests were run in an engine dynamometer according to a simulated, steady state FTP-75 procedure. Low viscosity oils and high levels of organic FM showed benefits in terms of fuel economy, but there were no significant effects observed with the oils with low MoDTC concentration on engine friction run in this program. No significant oil effects were observed on the gaseous emissions of the engine. PM emissions were analyzed for organic solubles and insolubles. The organic soluble fraction was further analyzed for the oil and fuel soluble portions.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2L Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing Part 2: Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses

The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.
Technical Paper

Energy Conservation Through The Use of Multigraded Gear Oils In Trucks

Studies of selected automotive gear lubricants in heavy truck tandem axles and transmissions have revealed improvements in fuel economy associated with the viscosity of lubricants tested (grades 75W, 75W-90, and 80W-140). The testing included a heavy truck on-highway fleet test and test track operation. Standard laboratory gear tests on light viscosity monograde (SAE 75W) oils indicate that oils of this type may be deficient in EP protection. Combined observations show that there may be a critical balance between axle lubricant fuel economy benefits and axle durability in field service.