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Technical Paper

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oils on Emissions Performance

2003-05-19
2003-01-1988
Throughout the evolution of the automobile, passenger car motor oils have been developed to address issues of wear, corrosion, deposit formation, friction, and viscosity stability. As a result, the internal combustion engines are now developed with the expectation that the lubricants to be used in them will deliver certain performance attributes. Metallurgies, clearances, and built-in stresses are all chosen with certain expectations from the lubricant. A family of chemicals that has been universally used in formulating passenger car motor oils is zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). ZDPs are extremely effective at protecting highly stressed valve train components against wear failure, especially in engine designs with a sliding contact between cams and followers. While ZDPs' benefits on wear control are universally accepted, ZDPs have been identified as the source of phosphorus, which deactivates noble metal aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

Extended-Drain ATF Field Testing in City Transit Buses

2003-05-19
2003-01-1985
City transit buses are a severe environment for an automatic transmission fluid. The fluid must endure very high operating temperatures because of the use of brake retarders, frequent stop-and-go driving, and numerous shifts. There is an increasing trend toward the use of extended-drain, synthetic-based ATFs for such severe service applications. This paper documents a field trial with both synthetic and petroleum-based ATFs at a large municipal bus fleet in Southern California. Three different commercial ATFs, made with either API Group 2, 3, or 4 base oils, respectively, were compared after roughly 80,000 km. and one year of operation. Because of different additive packages in each fluid, not all of the results can be explained by base oil effects alone. However, the base oil is certainly a dominant contributor to the finished fluid performance. The following four variables were monitored by used oil analysis: iron wear, copper wear, viscosity change, and acid number change.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Engine Oil Formulations: Antiwear, Friction Modifier, Dispersant Synergy

2002-10-21
2002-01-2767
The next generation of engine oil under development has been formulated to maintain beneficial oil lubrication properties at increased engine operating temperatures, increased drain-oil intervals, and with the recirculation of exhaust gas back through the engine (EGR). These conditions result in the formation of degradation products from decomposed fuel, additives, and base oil. Decomposition products containing reactive sulfur can result in the corrosion of copper alloys. Sulfur-containing compounds currently used in these formulations can include zinc dithiophosphates (ZDP), molydithiophosphates, molydithiocarbamates, and molybdic acid/amine complexes, along with sulfur containing detergents and antioxidants. Interactions among these components and others in the formulation often determine the propensity of these formulations for corrosion. This paper will discuss the results of corrosion bench tests used to screen oil formulations for copper corrosion.
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