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Technical Paper

Jet Fuel Low Temperature Operability

2002-05-06
2002-01-1650
Jet-A and Jet-A-1 have fueled commercial and military jets for decades. With -40°C and -47°C freeze point specifications respectively, Jet-A and Jet-A-1 have adequate low temperature operability for the current demands of jet-powered planes. However next generation military and commercial jet aircraft will need fuels with improved low temperature performance to reap the benefits of flying higher, longer and taking polar routes. The extreme cold these new routes will expose jet fuel to makes it necessary to have fuel that flows at much lower temperatures than is currently available. Changing the jet fuel refining conditions can achieve the desired low temperature characteristics however this is very expensive.
Technical Paper

Extending Injector Life in Methanol-Fueled DDC Engines Through Engine Oil and Fuel Additives

1990-10-01
902227
Considerable development effort has shown that conventional diesel engine lubricating oil specifications do not define the needs for acceptable injector life in methanol-fueled, two-stroke cycle diesel engines. A cooperative program was undertaken to formulate an engine oil-fuel additive system which was aimed at improving performance with methanol fueling. The performance feature of greatest concern was injector tip plugging. A Taguchi matrix using a 100 hour engine test was designed around an engine oil formulation which had performed well in a 500 hour engine test using a simulated urban bus cycle. Parameters investigated included: detergent level and type, dispersant choice, and zinc dithiophosphate level. In addition, the influence of a supplemental fuel additive was assessed. Analysis of the Taguchi Matrix data shows the fuel additive to have the most dramatic beneficial influence on maintaining injector performance.
Technical Paper

Counteracting detrimental EGR effects with diesel fuel additive

2003-05-19
2003-01-1915
A new generation of fluid technology using novel diesel fuel detergent/dispersant chemistry provides a multitude of beneficial effects to the diesel engine, especially the latest model designs. In addition to improved injector, valve and combustion chamber deposit removal, the additive restores power, fuel economy, performance and emission levels1. Positive observations have also been documented along with improved performance concerning crankcase lube viscosity, soot loading and TBN retention. An even greater added benefit is the inherent capability of the fuel additive to deal with several EGR issues now prominent with the introduction of new engines. Recent research, reported herein, has uncovered the extensive efficacy of this chemistry for piston durability and neutralization of ring corrosion phenomena. All of the beneficial additive attributes are further enhanced with increased oxidative and thermal fuel stability and no loss of filterability.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Examination of the Effect of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Intake Valve Deposits in Spark-Ignited Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-3995
Ethanol-gasoline blends are widely understood to present certain technical challenges to engine operation. Despite widespread use of fuels ranging from E5 (5% ethanol in gasoline) in some European countries to E10 (10% ethanol) in the United States to E100 (100% ethanol; “alcool”) in Brazil, there are certain subjects which have only anecdotally been examined. This paper examines two such issues: the effect of ethanol on intake valve deposits (IVD) and the impact of fuel additive on filter plugging (a measure of solubility). The effect of ethanol on IVD is studied along two lines of investigation: the effect of E10 in a multi-fuel data set carried out in the BMW 318i used for EPA and CARB certification, and the effect of varying ethanol content from 0% to 85% in gasoline carried out in a modern flex-fuel vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection Part I - Fuel System Deposits and Vehicle Performance

1999-05-03
1999-01-1498
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection and two with port fuel injection engines, were tested in 20,100 km intervals to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant on vehicle deposits and emissions, acceleration and driveability performance. The program showed that engine fuel system deposits, including specifically those on intake valves, combustion chambers and injectors are formed in higher amounts in the GDI engine than the PFI engine. The fuel additive used reduced injector deposits and combustion chamber deposits in the GDI, but had no significant effect on intake valve deposits, which are affected by crankcase oil formulation. In GDI vehicles, deposited engines were found to have increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions and poorer fuel economy and acceleration, but lower particulate emissions.
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