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Technical Paper

Using Intake Valve Deposit Cleanup Testing as a Combustion Chamber Deposit Discriminator

Carefully controlled intake valve deposit (IVD) cleanup testing is found to be an effective method for differentiating the effect of the deposit control additives on combustion chamber deposits (CCD). The IVD buildup procedure produces a consistent initial level of CCD that the cleanup additive, the additive of interest, continues to build on until the end of the cleanup test. This “end of cleanup” CCD is found to be as repeatable and differentiable a measurement as tests run under the more common “keep clean” type operation. While IVD cleanup testing induces a mid-test disturbance in the form of the end of buildup measurement, it aligns well with two key CCD protocols in terms of the higher additive treat rates used and the extended total test length. In an analysis of results from IVD cleanup tests run using four different engine/vehicle procedures on seven different additives, several findings stood out.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel and Ethanol Blends Stability

Characteristics of E diesel, a fuel blend of diesel fuel and ethanol, are considered in a matrix of tests. One characteristic of particular concern and a subject of this investigation is that of stability. Methods to evaluate stability are looked at and compared in light of the potential for distillate and ethanol to separate under certain conditions. The quality of the fuel blend is enhanced by the use of enabling additives to ensure stability which necessitates development of a standard for assessment of the quality of stability. The properties of various base diesel fuels and their influence on stability are also studied. Other key characteristics are evaluated including viscosity, pour point, and oxidative stability.
Technical Paper

Review of Exhaust Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines Operating on E Diesel Fuel Blends

Recently, research and testing of oxygenated diesel fuels has increased, particularly in the area of exhaust emissions. Included among the oxygenated diesel fuels are blends of diesel fuel with ethanol, or E diesel fuels. Exhaust emissions testing of E diesel fuel has been conducted by a variety of test laboratories under various conditions of engine type and operating conditions. This work reviews the existing public data from previous exhaust emissions testing on E diesel fuel and includes new testing performed in engines of varied design. Emissions data compares E diesel fuel with normal diesel fuel under conditions of different engine speeds, different engine loads and different engine designs. Variations in performance under these various conditions are observed and discussed with some potential explanations suggested.
Technical Paper

Opportunity for Diesel Emission Reductions Using Advanced Catalysts and Water Blend Fuel

This paper features the results of emission tests conducted on diesel oxidation catalysts, and the combination of diesel oxidation catalysts and water blend fuel (diesel fuel continuous emulsion). Vehicle chassis emission tests were conducted using an urban bus. The paper reviews the impact and potential benefits of combining catalyst and water blend diesel fuel technologies to reduce exhaust emissions from diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Soot Reduction in Diesel and Alternate Fuels using CHEMKIN®

A new gas phase kinetic model using Westbrook's gas phase n-heptane model and Frenklach's soot model was constructed. This model was then used to predict the impact on PAH formation as an indices of soot formation on ethanol/diesel fuel blends. The results were then compared to soot levels measured by various researchers. The ignition delay characteristics of ethanol were validated against experimental results in the literature. In this paper the results of the model and the comparison with experimental results will be discussed along with implications on the method of incorporation of additives and alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effects of Additives on Spark Ignited Combustion in a Laminar Flow System and in an Engine Under Cold-Start Conditions

Experiments have been conducted in a laminar flow system and in a research engine to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of gasoline-like fuels. The purpose of the laminar system is to enable rapid screening of additives to determine which, if any, have an enhancing effect on the early stages of combustion, especially under conditions of poor fuel vaporization which exist during cold-start in a spark ignited engine and which make flame propagation difficult to start and sustain. The base fuel used in the laminar and engine systems was a 9 component mixture formulated to simulate those components of gasoline expected to be present in the vapor phase in the intake system of an engine under cold-start conditions. In the laminar system, the pre-mixed, pre-vaporized fuel-air mixture is ignited and a time history of the combustion generated, hydroxyl radical chemiluminescence is recorded.