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Technical Paper

Vehicle Cradle Durability Design Development

2005-04-11
2005-01-1003
In this paper, cradle design functional objectives are briefly reviewed and a durability development process is proposed focusing on the cradle loads, stress, strain, and fatigue life analysis. Based upon the proposed design process, sample isolated and non-isolated cradle finite element (FE) models for a uni-body sport utility vehicle (SUV) under different design phases are solved and correlated with laboratory bench and proving ground tests. The correlation results show that the applied cradle models can be used to accurately predict the critical stress spots and fatigue life under various loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Truck Body Mount Load Prediction from Wheel Force Transducer Measurements

2005-04-11
2005-01-1404
This paper introduces a reliable method to calculate body mount loads from wheel-force-transducer (WFT) measurements on framed vehicles. The method would significantly reduce time and cost in vehicle development process. The prediction method includes two parts: Hybrid Load Analysis (HLA) that has been used by DaimlerChrysler Corporation and Body Mount Load Analysis (BMLA) that is introduced by this paper for the first time. The method is validated on a body-on-frame SUV and a pickup truck through one proving ground events. The example shown in this paper is for a SUV and one of the most severe events. In HLA, the loads at suspension-to-frame attachments are calculated from spindle loads measured by WFT. In BMLA, body mount loads were calculated using outputs of HLA with detailed finite-element-modeled frame and body. The loads are compared with measured body mount loads. The comparisons are conducted in range, standard deviation (S.D.), and fatigue pseudo-damage.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

2006-04-03
2006-01-1268
In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Catalytic Converter Bench Fatigue Test Specification Based on Equivalent Damage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0787
Component bench fatigue testing is a cost-effective way to evaluate the durability of exhaust catalytic converters. A successful bench fatigue test depends on the development of a test specification. The test specification should represent the actual customer duty cycle that the component is exposed to. Based on the concept of equivalent fatigue damage, a systematic approach is presented to obtain the test specification from the acquired road load data. A method based on damage analysis is proposed to determine the effective notch factor, and an empirical relationship is presented to account for the thermal effect on the test specification. The principles and procedures of multiple block testing and constant amplitude testing are also presented.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Treatments and Carbon Potential on Bending Fatigue Performance of SAE 4320 Gear Steel

1999-03-01
1999-01-0603
This project investigated the effect of carburizing carbon-potential and thermal history on the bending fatigue performance of carburized SAE 4320 gear steel. Modified-Brugger cantilever bending fatigue specimens were carburized at carbon potentials of 0.60, 0.85, 1.05, and 1.25 wt. pct. carbon, and were either quenched and tempered or quenched, tempered, reheated, quenched, and tempered. The reheat treatment was designed to lower the solute carbon content in the case through the formation of transition carbides and refine the prior austenite grain size. Specimens were fatigue tested in a tension/tension cycle with a minimum to maximum stress ratio of 0.1. The bending fatigue results were correlated with case and core microstructures, hardness profiles, residual stress profiles, retained austenite profiles, and component distortion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

Clamp Load Consideration in Fatigue Life Prediction of a Cast Aluminum Wheel Using Finite Element Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1581
Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
Technical Paper

CAE Fatigue Prediction of Fuel Tank Straps using Proving Ground Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1405
The durability of fuel tank straps is essential for vehicle safety. Extensive physical tests are conducted to verify designs for durability. Due to the complexity of the loads and the fuel-to-tank interaction, computer-aided-engineering (CAE) simulation has had limited application in this area. This paper presents a CAE method for fuel tank strap durability prediction. It discusses the analytical loads, modeling of fuel-to-tank interaction, dynamic analysis methods, and fatigue analysis methods. Analysis results are compared to physical test results. This method can be used in either a fuel-tank-system model or a full vehicle model. It can give directional design guidance for fuel tank strap durability in the early stages of product development to reduce vehicle development costs.
Technical Paper

An Exploration of Failure Modes in Rolled, Ductile, Cast-Iron Crankshafts Using a Resonant Bending Testing Rig

2005-04-11
2005-01-1906
This report explores the relationship of different failure criteria - specifically, surface cracks, stiffness changes, and two-piece failures - on rolled, ductile, cast-iron crankshafts. Crankshaft samples were closely monitored throughout resonant bending fatigue testing and were taken to near complete fracture. By monitoring resonance shifts of the samples during testing, stiffness changes and cracks were monitored. These data showed that an accelerating frequency shift was sufficient to indicate imminent two-piece failure and that this condition can be used as a failure criterion. Fatigue studies on two different crankshafts using this failure criterion were compared to those using a surface crack failure criterion. This comparison showed that using the surface crack failure criterion erroneously decreased the apparent fatigue life of the crankshaft significantly.
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