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Technical Paper

Vehicle Speed Prediction for Driver Assistance Systems

A predictive automatic gear shift system is currently under development. The system optimizes the gear shift process, taking the conditions of the road ahead into account, such that the fuel consumption is minimized. An essential part of the system is a module that predicts the vehicle speed dynamics: This calculates a speed trajectory, i.e. the most probable vehicle speed the driver will desire for the upcoming section of the route. In the paper the theoretical background for predicting the vehicle speed, and simulation results of the predictive shift algorithm are presented.
Technical Paper

Using Intake Valve Deposit Cleanup Testing as a Combustion Chamber Deposit Discriminator

Carefully controlled intake valve deposit (IVD) cleanup testing is found to be an effective method for differentiating the effect of the deposit control additives on combustion chamber deposits (CCD). The IVD buildup procedure produces a consistent initial level of CCD that the cleanup additive, the additive of interest, continues to build on until the end of the cleanup test. This “end of cleanup” CCD is found to be as repeatable and differentiable a measurement as tests run under the more common “keep clean” type operation. While IVD cleanup testing induces a mid-test disturbance in the form of the end of buildup measurement, it aligns well with two key CCD protocols in terms of the higher additive treat rates used and the extended total test length. In an analysis of results from IVD cleanup tests run using four different engine/vehicle procedures on seven different additives, several findings stood out.
Technical Paper

Truck Body Mount Load Prediction from Wheel Force Transducer Measurements

This paper introduces a reliable method to calculate body mount loads from wheel-force-transducer (WFT) measurements on framed vehicles. The method would significantly reduce time and cost in vehicle development process. The prediction method includes two parts: Hybrid Load Analysis (HLA) that has been used by DaimlerChrysler Corporation and Body Mount Load Analysis (BMLA) that is introduced by this paper for the first time. The method is validated on a body-on-frame SUV and a pickup truck through one proving ground events. The example shown in this paper is for a SUV and one of the most severe events. In HLA, the loads at suspension-to-frame attachments are calculated from spindle loads measured by WFT. In BMLA, body mount loads were calculated using outputs of HLA with detailed finite-element-modeled frame and body. The loads are compared with measured body mount loads. The comparisons are conducted in range, standard deviation (S.D.), and fatigue pseudo-damage.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Position Measurement using String-pots

It is often necessary to measure three-axis displacement of a deforming or moving part in static or dynamic impact tests. A point moving in the three-dimensional space can be monitored and measured using three string-pots or other distance measuring devices with a methodology developed here. A numerical algorithm along with required equations are shown and discussed. The algorithm was applied as an example to static seat pull test and compared to results from film analysis. The application with string pots is useful especially when the point of concern gets hidden or blocked by other parts disabling the photogrammetry technology.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Heavy Loads on Light Duty Vehicle Axle Operating Temperature

With the continued growth of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) market in North America in recent years more emphasis has been placed on fluid performance in these vehicles. In addition to fuel economy the key performance area sought by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in general has been temperature reduction in the axle. This is being driven by warranty claims that show that one of the causes of axle failure in these type vehicles is related to overheating. The overheating is, in turn, caused by high load situations, e.g., pulling a large trailer at or near the maximum rated load limit for the vehicle, especially when the vehicle or its main subcomponents are relatively new. The excessive temperature generally leads to premature failure of seals, bearings and gears. The choice of lubricant can have a significant effect on the peak and stabilized operating temperature under these extreme conditions.
Technical Paper

Testing Elastomers - Can Correlation Be Achieved Between Machines, Load Cells, Fixtures and Operators?

At present, testing elastomeric parts is performed at a level dictated by the users of the testing equipment. No society or testing group has defined a formal standard of testing or a way to calibrate a testing machine. This is in part due to the difficulty involved with testing a material whose properties are in a constant state of flux. To further complicate this issue, testing equipment, testing procedures, fixtures, and a host of other variables including the operators themselves, all can have an impact on the characterization of elastomers. The work presented in this paper looks at identifying some of the variables of testing between machines, load cells, fixtures and operators. It also shows that correlation can be achieved and should be performed between companies to ensure data integrity.
Technical Paper

TPE Radiator Components from Post Consumer Tires

Over 250 million tires are scrapped in the United States each year. Tires have been a problematic scrap because they have been designed to resist destruction, and have a tendency to float upwards in landfills. Improper storage has resulted in tire fires1--an even more problematic environmental concern than unsightly piles which can serve as breeding grounds for insect vectors. A better solution is to recover materials for use in new components. Not only does this resolve the landfill issue, but it also serves to conserve resources, while returning an economic benefit to society. This paper traces the introduction of tire material recovery at NRI Industries and DaimlerChrysler Corporation (DCC), the development of the infrastructure and materials, and the launch of the Jeep Grand Cherokee thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) radiator seals, comprised of post consumer tire crumb.
Technical Paper

Suspension Tuning Parameters Affecting Impact Harshness Performance Evaluation

In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation index for impact harshness (IH) is proposed. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the various vehicle body locations as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model with flexible body structure representation over an IH event to analyze the influence of various suspension tuning parameters, including suspension springs, shock damping, steer gear ratio, unsprung mass, track-width, and bushing stiffness.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
Technical Paper

Structure Borne Insertion Loss of Sound Package Components

Typical automotive sound package components are usually characterized by their absorption coefficients and their acoustic power-based insertion loss. This insertion loss (IL) is usually obtained by subtracting the transmission loss (TL) of a bare flat steel plate from the TL of the same plate covered with the trim material. While providing useful information regarding the performance of the component, air-borne insertion loss is based solely on acoustic excitations and thus provides very little information about the structure-borne performance of the component. This paper presents an attempt to introduce a standard procedure to define the power-based structure-borne insertion loss of sound package components. A flat steel plate is excited mechanically using a shaker. Different carpet constructions are applied on the plate and tested. Based on velocity measurements, a force transducer and intensity probe, the mechanical input and the acoustic radiated power are obtained.
Technical Paper

Reducing Deposits in a DISI Engine

Direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technology offers tremendous potential advantages in fuel savings and is likely to command a progressively increasing share of the European passenger vehicle market in the future. A concern is its propensity to form deposits on the inlet valve. In extreme cases, these deposits can lead to poor drivability and deteriorating emission performance. This inlet valve deposit build up is a well-known phenomenon in DISI engines since even additised fuel cannot wash over the back of intake valves to keep them clean. Two lubricants and two fuels were tested in a four car matrix. One of the lubricants was a fluid specifically developed by Lubrizol for DISI technology; the other was a baseline oil meeting Ford lubricants requirements and was qualified to ACEA A1/B1/ ILSAC GF2 performance level. Similarly, a baseline fuel was tested against an additised system.
Technical Paper

Over a Decade of LTMS

The Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) is the calibration system methodology and protocol for North American engine oil and gear oil tests. This system, administered by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Test Monitoring Center (TMC) since 1992, has grown in scope from five gasoline engine tests to over two dozen gasoline, heavy duty diesel and gear oil tests ranging from several thousand dollars per test to almost one-hundred thousand dollars per test. LTMS utilizes Shewhart and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control charts of reference oil data to assist in the decision making process on the calibration status of test stands and test laboratories. Equipment calibration is the backbone step necessary in the unbiased evaluation of candidate oils for oil quality specifications.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part IV: Using a New Split-μ Simulation Test for Optimizing Friction Material-Lubricant Hardware Systems

Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted through many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3271 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screen Test Development) a testing tool was developed to correlate to full-vehicle split-mu testing for limited slip differential applications using a low speed SAE #2 friction test rig. The SAE #2 Split-Mu Simulation is a full clutch pack component level friction test. The purpose of this test is to allow optimization of the friction material-lubricant hardware system in order to deliver consistent friction performance over the life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Screening Test Development

The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation rates of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system in order to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper we will describe the development of a break-away friction screening test using a Full-Scale Low-Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). Additionally, we will illustrate how this screening test can be used to investigate the fundamental friction material-lubricant interactions that occur in continuously engaged limited slip differentials.
Technical Paper

Model Based Development and Auto Testing: A Robust Approach for Reliable Automotive Software Development

Automotive electronics and software is getting complex day by day. More and more features and functions are offered and supported by software in place of hardware. Communication is carried out on the CAN bus instead of hard wired circuits. This architectural transition facilitates lots of flexibility, agility and economy in development. However, it introduces risk of unexpected failures due to insufficient testing and million of possible combinations, which can be created by users during the life time of a product. Model based development supports an effective way of handling these complexities during simulation and also provide oracle for its validation. Based on priorities and type of applications, test vectors can be auto generated and can be used for formal verification of the models. These auto-generated test vectors are valuable assets in testing and can be effectively reused for target hardware (ECU) verification.
Technical Paper

Modal Overlap at Low Frequencies - A Stochastic Approach for Vehicle System Modal Management

In the early stages of a vehicle program, it is a common practice to set target ranges for the global body, suspension and powertrain modes. This modal management process allows engineers to avoid potential noise and vibration problems stemming from strong overlap of major global modes. Before the first prototype hardware is built, finite element models of the body, suspension and powertrain are usually exercised to compare predicted versus targeted ranges of the major system modes in the form of a modal management chart. However, uncertainty associated with the design parameters, manufacturing process and other sources can lead to a major departure from the design intent when the first hardware prototype is built. In this study, a first order reliability method is used to predict variance of the eigen values due to parameter uncertainties. This allows the CAE engineers to add a “three sigma” bound on the eigen values reported in the modal management chart.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability – A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils

Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customers’ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10 years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads – well into the traditional ‘knock-limited’ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.
Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.