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Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Bead-Stiffened Flat Panels: FEA, SEA, and Experimental Analysis

Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
Technical Paper

Using Cloud Point Depressants Opportunistically To Reduce No.2 Diesel Fuel Cloud Point Giveaway

Diesel fuel is a blend of various middle distillate components separated at the refinery. The composition and characteristics of the diesel fuel blend changes daily if not hourly because of normal process variation, changing refinery processing conditions, changing crude oil diet or changing diesel fuel and kerosene market conditions. Regardless of the situation going on at the refinery or the market, the resultant diesel fuel must consistently meet established cloud point specifications. To consistently meet the cloud point specifications, refiners are forced to blend their diesel fuels in such a way that the resultant blend is always on the low side of the cloud point specification even when the refining process adversely changes the fuel characteristics. This practice has the effect of producing several degrees of cloud point “giveaway” when the refinery is not experiencing adverse swings in product quality.
Technical Paper

Use of Virtual Tests in Establishing BOI/VGRA

The Engine Oil Industry Base Oil Interchange (BOI) and Viscosity Grade Read Across (VGRA) guidelines developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) provide a means to significantly reduce the time to market for current technology oils. The guidelines also allow conversion of a fraction of the millions of dollars spent each year on engine testing in pursuit of API engine oil licensing into research testing and the development of fundamental knowledge. In the past, guidelines have been developed based upon a general assessment of minimal engine test data. Recently, however, regression models have been used to assess Base Oil and Viscosity Grade effects. The use of statistical regression models and Virtual Tests in determining effects to establish BOI and VGRA has several advantages. These advantages, demonstrated through an example and a case study, include volume of data and breadth of data.
Technical Paper

Truck Frame Motion Prediction and Correlation

Accurate motion prediction can be used to evaluate vibrations at seat track and steering wheel. This paper presents the prediction and correlation of truck frame motion from wheel force transducer (WFT) measurements. It is assumed that the method can be used to predict vibrations at seat track and steering wheel for unibody vehicles. Two durability events were used for calculation. WFT measurements were used as inputs applied on frame from suspension. Frame loads were then used as inputs to calculate frame motions using a FEA approach. The predicted frame motions are represented by four exhaust hangers and they are compared with measured motions of the same locations. The correlations include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It is shown that good correlations are obtained in velocity and displacement. Acceleration shows bigger differences than velocity and displacement.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Improve Springback Prediction Accuracy Using Dynamic Explicit FEA Codes

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been successfully used in the simulation of sheet metal forming process. The accurate prediction of the springback is still a major challenge due to its sensitivity to the geometric modeling of the tools, strain hardening model, yield criterion, contact algorithm, loading pattern, element formulation, mesh size and number of through-thickness integration points, etc. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effect of numerical parameters on springback prediction using dynamic explicit FEA codes. The example used in the study is from the Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Steel Rail Springback Project. The modeling techniques are discussed and the guidelines are provided for choosing numerical parameters, which influence the accuracy of the springback prediction and the computation cost.
Technical Paper

Strength Prediction and Correlation of Tow Hook Systems using Finite Element Analyses

In this paper, tow hook systems and their functional objectives are briefly introduced. General analysis considerations in strength prediction of a tow hook system are described. These considerations contain nonlinear, clamping and material property simulations. Connections and loading simulation of a tow hook system model are discussed in details. A correlation example of a tow hook system is illustrated. This study shows that detailed modeling of a tow hook system is a fundamental requirement for accurate strength prediction and good correlation between finite element analysis and testing.
Technical Paper

Stamping Effect on Oil Canning and Dent Resistance Performances of an Automotive Roof Panel

The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of stamping process on oil canning and dent resistance performances of an automotive roof panel. Finite element analysis of stamping processes was carried out using LS-Dyna to obtain thickness and plastic strain distributions under various forming conditions. The forming results were mapped onto the roof model by an in-house developed mapping code. A displacement control approach using an implicit FEM code ABAQUS/Standard was employed for oil canning and denting analysis. An Auto/Steel Partnership Standardized Test Procedure for Dent Resistance was employed to establish the analysis model and to determine the dent and oil canning loads. The results indicate that stamping has a positive effect on dent resistance and a negative effect on oil canning performance. As forming strains increase, dent resistance increases while the oil canning load decreases.
Technical Paper

Springback Study on a Stamped Fender Outer

Springback study on a Dodge Ram fender outer panel is detailed in this paper. A simple measurement fixture is designed for the panel, wherein non-contact laser scan technology is applied The measurement data are compared with the original CAD design surface and deviation contour maps are obtained. Consistency of measurement is studied at different sections among three samples. Details of FEA simulations are outlined. The comparison between measurement and simulation prediction is summarized. A method to describe the consistency of measurement and the accuracy of simulation prediction is proposed. The targets for measurement consistency and simulation accuracy are verified. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate various simulation input parameters.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Topology and Performance Redesign by Large Admissible Perturbations for Automotive Structural Design

A methodology for topology and performance redesign of complex structures by LargE Admissible Perturbations (LEAP) has been developed since 1983 in the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, the University of Michigan. LEAP theory has successfully solved various redesign problems for performance and simultaneous topological and performance changes. The redesign problem is defined as a two-state problem that consists of two structural states, States S1 and S2. State S1 has undesirable characteristics or performance which does not satisfy designer specifications. The unknown State S2 has the desired structural response and/or performance. The relation between State S1 and State S2 is highly nonlinear with respect to its response or topology. So far, LEAP algorithms have solved various redesign problems for large structural changes (on the order of 100%–500%) of State S1 with only one finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Representation of Constrained/Unconstrained Layer Damping Treatments in FEA/SEA Vehicle System Models: A Simplified Approach

In this study, a simplified approach to modeling the dynamics of damping treatments in FEA (Finite Element)/ SEA (Statistical Energy) models is presented. The basic idea is to represent multi-layered composite structures with an equivalent layer. The properties of the equivalent layer are obtained by using the RKU (Ross, Kerwin and Ungar) method. The procedure presented here does not require any special pre-processing of the finite element input file and it does not increase the number of active degrees of freedom in the model, thereby making it possible to include the effect of these treatments in large system/subsystem level models. The equivalent properties obtained from RKU analysis can also be used in the SEA system models. In this study, both unconstrained and constrained layer damping treatments applied to simple structures (e.g., flat panels) as well as production vehicle components are examined.
Technical Paper

Repairable System Reliability Prediction

For a vehicle or repairable system, incidents (conditions) are neither necessarily independent nor identically distributed. Therefore, traditional statistical distributions like Weibull, Normal, etc, are no longer valid to estimate reliability. The Non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) model can be used to predict reliability and warranty of the field product. It can also measure the reliability improvement during the development cycle. The NHPP model is discussed in this paper. In applying a NHHP model to reliability data on a repairable system, one may have few or no failures. This paper presents the I/100 and reliability derivations when the parameter β in the ROCOF function is assumed to have a known value.
Technical Paper

Perforated Damping Treatment; A Novel Approach to Reduction of Weight

In noise and vibration control, damping treatments are applied on panel surfaces to dissipate the energy of flexural vibrations. Presence of damping treatment on the surface of a panel also plays an important role in the resulting vibro-acoustic characteristics of the composite system. The focus of this study is to explore possibilities of reducing the weight of damping treatments by means of perforation without sacrificing performance. The power injection concept from Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is used in conjunction with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to predict the effect of perforated unconstrained layer treatments on flat rectangular panels. Normalized radiated sound power of the treated panels are calculated to assess the effect of varying percentage of perforation on structural-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Damping Treatment for Structure Borne Noise Reduction

In automotive industry, all passenger vehicles are treated with damping materials to reduce structure borne noise. The effectiveness of damping treatments depends upon design parameters such as choice of damping materials, locations and size of the treatment. This paper proposes a CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methodology based on finite element analysis to optimize damping treatments. The developed method uses modal strain-energy information of bare structural panels to identify flexible regions, which in turn facilitates optimization of damping treatments with respect to location and size. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by optimizing damping treatment for a full-size pick-up truck. Moreover, simulated road noise performances of the truck with and without damping treatments are compared, which show the benefits of applying damping treatment.
Technical Paper

Nondestructive Estimation of Degradation in Vehicle Joints Due to High Mileage

An experimental method for nondestructive estimation of damage in joints due to high mileage degradation in cars is presented. The method estimates damage by comparing transfer functions of the same car at zero and at high mileage. The potential of the method is demonstrated analytically using a three dimensional concept Finite Element Model (FEM) of a car body to simulate the transfer functions of this car body at zero and at high mileage. The results demonstrate that the method is effective for identifying the damaged joints as well as the relative degree of degradation.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Strain Rate Effects in Automotive Impact

This paper deals with the effects of various approaches for modeling of strain rate effects for mild and high strength steels (HSS) on impact simulations. The material modeling is discussed in the context of the finite element method (FEM) modeling of progressive crush of energy absorbing automotive components. The characteristics of piecewise linear plasticity strain rate dependent material model are analyzed and various submodels for modeling of impact response of steel structures are investigated. The paper reports on the ranges of strains and strain rates that are calculated in typical FEM models for tube crush and their dependence on the material modeling approaches employed. The models are compared to the experimental results from drop tower tests.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Frame Joint Stiffness Study

Truck frame structural performance of body on frame vehicles is greatly affected by crossmember and joint design. While the structural characteristics of these joints vary widely, there is no known tool currently in use that quickly predicts joint stiffness early in the design cycle. This paper will describe a process used to evaluate the structural stiffness of frame joints based on research of existing procedures and implementation of newly developed methods. Results of five different joint tests selected from current production body-on-frame vehicles will be reported. Correlation between finite element analysis and test results will be shown. Three samples of each joint were tested and the sample variation will be shown. After physical and analytical testing was completed, a Design of Experiments approach was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of joints with respect to gauge and shape modification.
Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.
Technical Paper

Information Flow Analysis for Air Bag Sensor Development

A statistical theory is used to quantify the amount of information transmitted from a transducer (i.e., accelerometer) to the air bag controller during a vehicle crash. The amount of information relevant to the assessment of the crash severity is evaluated. This quantification procedure helps determine the effectiveness of different testing conditions for the calibration of sensor algorithms. The amount of information in an acceleration signal is interpreted as a measure of the ability to separate signals based on parameters that are used to assess the severity of an impact. Applications to a linear spring-mass model and to actual crash signals from a development vehicle are presented. In particular, the comparison of rigid barrier (RB) and offset deformable barrier (ODB) testing modes is analyzed. Also, the performance of front-mounted and passenger compartment accelerometers are compared.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Fastened Joints in Automotive Engineering

In this paper, the methodology of finite element analyses of fastened joints in automotive engineering applications is described in detail. The analyses cover a) the possibility of slippage of the spacer with the design/actual clamp load, and under critical operating loads; b) the strength of the fastener and other structural components comprising the joint under the maximum clamp load. The types of fastened joints, the mechanical characteristics of the joints, the relationship of clamp load to torque, the design and maximum clamp loads, the finite element model meshing and assembly, the non-linearity due to contact, the determination of gaps and stack-up, and the nonlinear material simulation and loading procedures are described. An analysis example of a fastened joint on chassis is also illustrated.