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Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening: Rotational Rheology Techniques to Determine Viscosity and Soot Structure in Peugeot XUD-11 BTE Drain Oils

The Association des Constructeurs Européen d'Automobiles (ACEA) light duty diesel engine specifications requires a kinematic viscosity measurement technique for Peugeot XUD-11 BTE drain oils. This viscosity measurement is used to define the medium temperature dispersivity of soot in the drain oil.(1) This paper discusses the use of rotational rheology methods to measure the Newtonian character of XUD-11 drain oils. The calculation of the rate index using the Hershel Bulkley model indicates the level of non-Newtonian behavior of the drain oil and directly reflects the level of soot dispersion or agglomeration. This study shows that the more non-Newtonian the drain oil the greater the difference between kinematic and rotational viscosity measurements Oscillation (dynamic) rheological techniques are used to characterize build up of soot structure.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Part 6: Base Oil Effects

One of the key functions of lubricating oil additives in diesel engines is to control oil thickening caused by soot accumulation. Over the last several years, it has become apparent that the composition of the base oil used within the lubricant plays an extremely important role in the oil thickening phenomenon. In particular, oil thickening observed in the Mack T-8 test is significantly affected by the aromatic content of the base oil. We have found that the Mack T-8 thickening phenomenon is associated with high electrical activity, i.e., engine drain oils which exhibit high levels of viscosity increase show significantly higher conductivities. These findings suggest that electrical interactions are involved in soot-induced oil thickening.
Technical Paper

The Use of Life Cycle Assessment with Crankcase Lubricants to Yield Maximum Environmental Benefit – Case Study of Residual Chlorine in Lubricant

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to determine quantitatively the environmental impacts of a range of options. The environmental community has used LCA to study all of the impacts of a product over its life cycle. This analysis can help to prevent instances where a greater degree of environmental harm results when changes are made to products based on consideration of impacts in only part of the life cycle. This study applies the methodology to engine lubricants, and in particular chlorine limits in engine lubricant specifications. Concern that chlorine in lubricants might contribute to emissions from vehicle exhausts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), collectively called PCDD/F, led to the introduction of chlorine limits in lubricant specifications. No direct evidence was available linking chlorine in lubricants to PCDD/F formation, but precautionary principles were used to set lubricant chlorine limits.
Technical Paper

The Development of CVT Fluids with Higher Friction Coefficients

The development of new transmission designs continues to affect the vehicle market. Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) remain one of the more recent designs that impact the vehicle market. A desire for high belt-pulley capacity has driven studies concentrating on metal-on-metal (M/M) friction as a function of the CVT fluid. This paper describes the statistical techniques used to optimize the fluid friction as a function of additive components in a bench-scale, three-element test rig.
Technical Paper

Soot Related Viscosity Increase - A Comparison of the Mack T-11 Engine Test to Field Performance

Soot related viscosity increase has been reported as a field issue in some diesel engines and this led to the development of the T-11 engine test, incorporated in the Mack EO-N Premium Plus 03 specification (014 GS 12037). This study compares T-11 laboratory engine tests and vehicle field tests and seeks to confirm the correlation between them. The findings are that the T-11 test provides an effective screening tool to investigate soot related viscosity increase, and the severity of the engine test limits gives a substantial margin of safety compared to the field. A complementary study was conducted in conjunction with this work that focuses on the successful application of electrochemical sensor technology to diagnose soot content and soot related viscosity increase. This will be the subject of a separate paper.
Technical Paper

Review of Exhaust Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines Operating on E Diesel Fuel Blends

Recently, research and testing of oxygenated diesel fuels has increased, particularly in the area of exhaust emissions. Included among the oxygenated diesel fuels are blends of diesel fuel with ethanol, or E diesel fuels. Exhaust emissions testing of E diesel fuel has been conducted by a variety of test laboratories under various conditions of engine type and operating conditions. This work reviews the existing public data from previous exhaust emissions testing on E diesel fuel and includes new testing performed in engines of varied design. Emissions data compares E diesel fuel with normal diesel fuel under conditions of different engine speeds, different engine loads and different engine designs. Variations in performance under these various conditions are observed and discussed with some potential explanations suggested.
Technical Paper

Over a Decade of LTMS

The Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) is the calibration system methodology and protocol for North American engine oil and gear oil tests. This system, administered by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Test Monitoring Center (TMC) since 1992, has grown in scope from five gasoline engine tests to over two dozen gasoline, heavy duty diesel and gear oil tests ranging from several thousand dollars per test to almost one-hundred thousand dollars per test. LTMS utilizes Shewhart and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control charts of reference oil data to assist in the decision making process on the calibration status of test stands and test laboratories. Equipment calibration is the backbone step necessary in the unbiased evaluation of candidate oils for oil quality specifications.
Technical Paper

Opportunity for Diesel Emission Reductions Using Advanced Catalysts and Water Blend Fuel

This paper features the results of emission tests conducted on diesel oxidation catalysts, and the combination of diesel oxidation catalysts and water blend fuel (diesel fuel continuous emulsion). Vehicle chassis emission tests were conducted using an urban bus. The paper reviews the impact and potential benefits of combining catalyst and water blend diesel fuel technologies to reduce exhaust emissions from diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part IV: Using a New Split-μ Simulation Test for Optimizing Friction Material-Lubricant Hardware Systems

Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted through many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3271 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screen Test Development) a testing tool was developed to correlate to full-vehicle split-mu testing for limited slip differential applications using a low speed SAE #2 friction test rig. The SAE #2 Split-Mu Simulation is a full clutch pack component level friction test. The purpose of this test is to allow optimization of the friction material-lubricant hardware system in order to deliver consistent friction performance over the life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part III: Using an Improved Break-Away Friction Screen Test to Investigate Fundamental Friction Material-Lubricant Interactions

Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted in many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems, and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3270 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Slip Screen Test Development), a testing tool was developed to simulate a limited slip differential break-away event using a Full Scale-Low Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). The purpose of this test was to investigate the fundamental interactions between lubricants and friction materials. The original break-away friction screen test, which used actual vehicle clutch plates and a single friction surface, proved a useful tool in screening new friction modifier technology.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications

Phosphorus is known to reduce effectiveness of the three-way catalysts (TWC) commonly used by automotive OEMs. This phenomenon is referred to as catalyst deactivation. The process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) decomposes in an engine creating many phosphorus species, which eventually interact with the active sites of exhaust catalysts. This phosphorous comes from both oil consumption and volatilization. Novel low-volatility ZDDP is designed in such a way that the amounts of volatile phosphorus species are significantly reduced while their antiwear and antioxidant performances are maintained. A recent field trial conducted in New York City taxi cabs provided two sets of “aged” catalysts that had been exposed to GF-4-type formulations. The trial compared fluids formulated with conventional and low-volatility ZDDPs. Results of field test examination were reported in an earlier paper (1).
Technical Paper

Jet Fuel Thermal Stability - Lab Testing for JP8+100

The continued development of more powerful aviation turbine engines has demanded greater thermal stability of the fuel as a high temperature heat sink. This in turn requires better definition of the thermal stability of jet fuels. Thermal stability refers to the deposit-forming tendency of the fuel. It is generally accepted that dissolved oxygen initiates the deposition process in freshly refined fuels. While there are many tests that are designed to measure or assess thermal stability, many of these either do not display sufficient differentiation between fuels of average stability (JP-8) and intermediate stability (JP-8+100, JP-TS), or require large test equipment, large volumes of fuels and/or are costly. This paper will discuss the use of three laboratory tests as “concept thermal stability prediction” tools with aviation fuels, including Jet A-1 or JP-8, under JP8+100 test conditions.
Journal Article

Impact of Lubricating Oil Condition on Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

Limited technical studies to speciate particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline fueled vehicles have indicated that the lubricating oil may play an important role. It is unclear, however, how this contribution changes with the condition of the lubricant over time. In this study, we hypothesize that the mileage accumulated on the lubricant will affect PM emissions, with a goal of identifying the point of lubricant mileage at which PM emissions are minimized or at least stabilized relative to fresh lubricant. This program tested two low-mileage Tier 2 gasoline vehicles at multiple lubricant mileage intervals ranging from zero to 5000 miles. The LA92 cycle was used for emissions testing. Non-oxygenated certification fuel and splash blended 10% and 20% ethanol blends were used as test fuels.
Technical Paper

How Polymer Architecture Affects Permanent Viscosity Loss of Multigrade Lubricants

Multigrade automotive lubricants contain polymeric viscosity modifiers which enable the oil to provide adequate hydrodynamic lubrication at high temperatures and good starting/pumping performance at low temperatures. Under operating conditions in engines, transmissions and gear boxes, polymeric additives undergo both temporary and permanent viscosity loss. The former is caused by flow orientation and the latter by molecular chain scission. Whatever the mechanism, original equipment manufacturers are interested in maintaining a minimum level of hydrodynamic viscosity from oil change to oil change. This is often expressed as a “stay-in-grade” requirement. Commercial viscosity modifiers (VM) span a wide range of chemistries and molecular architectures.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants for a Global Market: Formulating a Global Additive Technology

Regulations reducing emissions worldwide are the driving force behind the trend to converging diesel engine design strategies among manufacturers. This results in common engine lubricant performance and the need for a global performance platform for diesel engine lubricants (1, 2). This paper chronicles a multi-year project that defined a diesel engine lubricant platform to meet global Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) requirements. The design of the additive chemistry required to achieve the platform targets is described. Demonstration of the performance capabilities of the new technology in engine tests that constitute international specifications and field testing is also discussed. The results suggest that formulating a heavy duty diesel engine oil to meet a variety of worldwide lubricant requirements results in a more robust formulation, outperforming oils designed to meet only regional requirements.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition and Molecular Structure Effects on Soot Formation in Direct-Injection Flames Under Diesel Engine Conditions

Numerous investigations have been conducted to determine the effect of fuel composition and molecular structure on particulate emissions using exhaust gas analysis, but relatively few measurements have been obtained in-cylinder or under conditions where fuel effects can be isolated from other variables. Recent work has shown that the amount of air entrained upstream of the lift-off length is critical to soot formation and therefore must be controlled when making relative comparisons of soot formed from various fuels. In this work, dimethoxymethane was used as the base fuel to produce a non-sooting flame with relatively constant lift-off length in a constant volume combustion vessel at 1000 K, and a density of 16.6 kg/m3. A second fuel was then mixed into the dimethoxymethane (DMM) to determine a point at which soot formation begins.
Technical Paper

Extinction Measurements of In-Cylinder Soot Deposition in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

The combustion process in diesel engines deposits soot on the in-cylinder surfaces. Previous works have suggested that these soot deposits eventually break off during cylinder blow-down and the exhaust stroke and contribute significantly to exhaust soot emissions. In order to better understand this potential pathway to soot emissions, the authors recently investigated combusting fuel-jet/wall interactions in a diesel engine. This work, published as a companion paper, showed how soot escaped from the combusting fuel jet and was brought in close proximity to the wall so that it could become a deposit. The current study extends this earlier work with laser-extinction measurements of the soot-deposition rate in the same single-cylinder, heavy-duty DI diesel engine. Measurements were made by passing the beam of a CW-diode laser through a window in the piston bowl rim that was in-line with one of the fuel jets.
Technical Paper

Extending Injector Life in Methanol-Fueled DDC Engines Through Engine Oil and Fuel Additives

Considerable development effort has shown that conventional diesel engine lubricating oil specifications do not define the needs for acceptable injector life in methanol-fueled, two-stroke cycle diesel engines. A cooperative program was undertaken to formulate an engine oil-fuel additive system which was aimed at improving performance with methanol fueling. The performance feature of greatest concern was injector tip plugging. A Taguchi matrix using a 100 hour engine test was designed around an engine oil formulation which had performed well in a 500 hour engine test using a simulated urban bus cycle. Parameters investigated included: detergent level and type, dispersant choice, and zinc dithiophosphate level. In addition, the influence of a supplemental fuel additive was assessed. Analysis of the Taguchi Matrix data shows the fuel additive to have the most dramatic beneficial influence on maintaining injector performance.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on the Friction and Emissions of a Light-Duty, 2.2L Direct - Injection - Diesel Engine Part 1 - Engine Test Results

The effects of lubricating oil on friction and engine-out emissions in a light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine were investigated. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity (SAE 5W-20 to 10W-40), friction modifier (FM) level and chemistry (MoDTC and organic FM), and basestock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Tests were run in an engine dynamometer according to a simulated, steady state FTP-75 procedure. Low viscosity oils and high levels of organic FM showed benefits in terms of fuel economy, but there were no significant effects observed with the oils with low MoDTC concentration on engine friction run in this program. No significant oil effects were observed on the gaseous emissions of the engine. PM emissions were analyzed for organic solubles and insolubles. The organic soluble fraction was further analyzed for the oil and fuel soluble portions.