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Technical Paper

Vibro-acoustic FEA Modeling of Two Layer Trim Systems

This paper investigates the potential of using FEA poro-elastic Biot elements for the modeling carpet-like trim systems in a simplified setup. A comparison between FEA computations and experiments is presented for two layer (mass-spring) trim systems placed on a test-rig consisting in a 510×354×1.6 mm flat steel plate clamped in a stiff frame excited at its base. Results are presented for a given heavy layer with two different poro-elastic materials: one foam and one fibrous material. The investigations included accelerometer measurements on the steel plate, laser-doppler vibrometer scans of the heavy layer surface, sound pressure measurements in free field at a distance of 1 meter above the plate, as well as sound pressure in a closed rectangular concrete-walled cavity (0.5×0.6×0.7 m) put on top of the test-rig. Computations were carried out using a commercial FEA software implementing the Biot theory for poro-elastic media.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Bead-Stiffened Flat Panels: FEA, SEA, and Experimental Analysis

Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cradle Durability Design Development

In this paper, cradle design functional objectives are briefly reviewed and a durability development process is proposed focusing on the cradle loads, stress, strain, and fatigue life analysis. Based upon the proposed design process, sample isolated and non-isolated cradle finite element (FE) models for a uni-body sport utility vehicle (SUV) under different design phases are solved and correlated with laboratory bench and proving ground tests. The correlation results show that the applied cradle models can be used to accurately predict the critical stress spots and fatigue life under various loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Part 6: Base Oil Effects

One of the key functions of lubricating oil additives in diesel engines is to control oil thickening caused by soot accumulation. Over the last several years, it has become apparent that the composition of the base oil used within the lubricant plays an extremely important role in the oil thickening phenomenon. In particular, oil thickening observed in the Mack T-8 test is significantly affected by the aromatic content of the base oil. We have found that the Mack T-8 thickening phenomenon is associated with high electrical activity, i.e., engine drain oils which exhibit high levels of viscosity increase show significantly higher conductivities. These findings suggest that electrical interactions are involved in soot-induced oil thickening.
Technical Paper

USCAR Traction Test Methodology for Traction-CVT Fluids

A traction test machine, developed for evaluation of traction-CVT fluids for the automotive consortium, USCAR, provides precision traction measurements to stresses up to 4 GPa. The high stress machine, WAMhs, provides an elliptical contact between AISI 52100 steel roller and disc specimens. Machine stiffness and positioning technology offer precision control of linear slip, sideslip and spin. A USCAR traction test methodology includes entrainment velocities from 2 to 10 m/sec and temperatures from -20°C to 140°C. The purpose of the USCAR machine and test methodology is to encourage traction fluid development and to establish a common testing approach for fluid qualification. The machine utilizes custom software, which provides flexibility to conduct comprehensive traction fluid evaluations.
Technical Paper

Truck Body Mount Load Prediction from Wheel Force Transducer Measurements

This paper introduces a reliable method to calculate body mount loads from wheel-force-transducer (WFT) measurements on framed vehicles. The method would significantly reduce time and cost in vehicle development process. The prediction method includes two parts: Hybrid Load Analysis (HLA) that has been used by DaimlerChrysler Corporation and Body Mount Load Analysis (BMLA) that is introduced by this paper for the first time. The method is validated on a body-on-frame SUV and a pickup truck through one proving ground events. The example shown in this paper is for a SUV and one of the most severe events. In HLA, the loads at suspension-to-frame attachments are calculated from spindle loads measured by WFT. In BMLA, body mount loads were calculated using outputs of HLA with detailed finite-element-modeled frame and body. The loads are compared with measured body mount loads. The comparisons are conducted in range, standard deviation (S.D.), and fatigue pseudo-damage.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

The Stiffness of Automobile Outer Panels

The objective of this paper is to present one of the application of the finite element method (FEM) in early stages of vehicle development to calculate larger deflections of body sheet panel. The stiffness of sheet metal shells is defined in conjunction with the local elastic buckling instability under concentrated loads. Considerable amount of weight reduction of outer panels could be obtained by optimizing metal gauges, radii, peripheral conditions and reinforcing manner of the panel. Among several outer panels of an automobile, a roof panel is picked up as an example and its stiffness is calculated by FEM analysis. The results shows satisfactory coincidence with the experimental ones. Regarding the calculation procedure, Central Processor Unit (CPU) time of finite elements was found to be reduced by varying and optimizing supporting conditions of the panel. Furthermore, the stiffness analysis program during the initial design stages of vehicle development is described.
Technical Paper

The Role of Engine Oil Formulations on Fluid Diagnostics

Historically, vehicle fluid condition has been monitored by measuring miles driven or hours operated. Many current vehicles have more sophisticated monitoring methods that use additional variables such as fuel consumption, engine temperature and engine revolutions to predict fluid condition. None of these monitoring means, however, actually measures a fluid property to determine condition, and that is about to change. New sensors and diagnostic systems are being developed that allow real time measurement of some lubricant physical and/or chemical properties and interpret the results in order to recommend oil change intervals and maximize performance. Many of these new sensors use electrochemical or acoustic wave technologies. This paper examines the use of these two technologies to determine engine oil condition and focuses on the effects of lubricant chemistry on interpreting the results.
Technical Paper

The Measurement and Control of Cyclic Variations of Flow in a Piston Cylinder Assembly

The existence of the cyclic variation of the flow inside an cylinder affects the performance of the engine. Developing methods to understand and control in-cylinder flow has been a goal of engine designers for nearly 100 years. In this paper, passive control of the intake flow of a 3.5-liter DaimlerChrysler engine was examined using a unique optical diagnostic technique: Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV), which has been developed at Michigan State University. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the normalized circulation are calculated from instantaneous planar velocity measurements to quantify gas motion within a cylinder. Emphasis of this work is examination of methods that quantify the cyclic variability of the flow. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of the flow on the tumble and swirl plane is calculated and compared to the PDF circulation results.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3.Part 2. Valve Train Wear Response to Formulation Variables

The work presented here is the second of two papers investigating the KA24E engine test. The first paper characterized the KA24E engine in terms of the physical and chemical operating environment it presents to lubricants. The authors investigated oil degradation and wear mechanisms, and examined the differences between the KA24E and the Sequence VE engine tests. It was shown that while the KA24E does not degrade the lubricant to the extent that occurs in the Sequence VE, wear could be a serious problem if oils are poorly formulated. This second paper examines the wear response of the KA24E to formulation variables. A statistically designed matrix demonstrated that the KA24E is sensitive to levels of secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP), dispersant and calcium sulfonate detergent. This matrix also showed that the KA24E appears to have good repeatability for well formulated oils and is a reasonable replacement for the wear component of the Sequence VE.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3 Part 1: Engine Design, Operating Conditions and Wear Mechanisms

The Nissan KA24E engine test is designated to replace the Ford Sequence VE engine test as the low temperature valve train wear requirement for ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee) GF-3. The KA24E (recently designated the Sequence IV A) represents much of the current world-wide material and design technology while retaining the sliding cam/follower contact found in earlier engine designs. The work presented here is the first of two reports. In this first report, the physical and chemical environment the KA24E engine presents a lubricant is characterized and compared to those of the Sequence VE engine. Valve train materials and wear modes are investigated and described. Although chemical analysis of drain oils indicate the KA24E procedure does not degrade the lubricant to the extent seen in the Sequence VE test, valve train wear appears to proceed in a similar manner in both tests.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oils on Emissions Performance

Throughout the evolution of the automobile, passenger car motor oils have been developed to address issues of wear, corrosion, deposit formation, friction, and viscosity stability. As a result, the internal combustion engines are now developed with the expectation that the lubricants to be used in them will deliver certain performance attributes. Metallurgies, clearances, and built-in stresses are all chosen with certain expectations from the lubricant. A family of chemicals that has been universally used in formulating passenger car motor oils is zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). ZDPs are extremely effective at protecting highly stressed valve train components against wear failure, especially in engine designs with a sliding contact between cams and followers. While ZDPs' benefits on wear control are universally accepted, ZDPs have been identified as the source of phosphorus, which deactivates noble metal aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of Predictive Models for Non-Acidic Lubricity Agents (NALA) using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR)

This study describes the use of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) to develop predictive models for non-acidic Lubricity agents. The work demonstrates the importance of separating certain chemical families to give better and more robust equations rather than grouping a whole data set together. These models can then be used as important tools in further development work by predicting activities of new compounds before actual synthesis/testing.
Technical Paper

Testing Elastomers - Can Correlation Be Achieved Between Machines, Load Cells, Fixtures and Operators?

At present, testing elastomeric parts is performed at a level dictated by the users of the testing equipment. No society or testing group has defined a formal standard of testing or a way to calibrate a testing machine. This is in part due to the difficulty involved with testing a material whose properties are in a constant state of flux. To further complicate this issue, testing equipment, testing procedures, fixtures, and a host of other variables including the operators themselves, all can have an impact on the characterization of elastomers. The work presented in this paper looks at identifying some of the variables of testing between machines, load cells, fixtures and operators. It also shows that correlation can be achieved and should be performed between companies to ensure data integrity.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Improve Springback Prediction Accuracy Using Dynamic Explicit FEA Codes

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been successfully used in the simulation of sheet metal forming process. The accurate prediction of the springback is still a major challenge due to its sensitivity to the geometric modeling of the tools, strain hardening model, yield criterion, contact algorithm, loading pattern, element formulation, mesh size and number of through-thickness integration points, etc. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effect of numerical parameters on springback prediction using dynamic explicit FEA codes. The example used in the study is from the Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Steel Rail Springback Project. The modeling techniques are discussed and the guidelines are provided for choosing numerical parameters, which influence the accuracy of the springback prediction and the computation cost.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.
Technical Paper

TPE Radiator Components from Post Consumer Tires

Over 250 million tires are scrapped in the United States each year. Tires have been a problematic scrap because they have been designed to resist destruction, and have a tendency to float upwards in landfills. Improper storage has resulted in tire fires1--an even more problematic environmental concern than unsightly piles which can serve as breeding grounds for insect vectors. A better solution is to recover materials for use in new components. Not only does this resolve the landfill issue, but it also serves to conserve resources, while returning an economic benefit to society. This paper traces the introduction of tire material recovery at NRI Industries and DaimlerChrysler Corporation (DCC), the development of the infrastructure and materials, and the launch of the Jeep Grand Cherokee thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) radiator seals, comprised of post consumer tire crumb.
Technical Paper

System Integration for New Mobility

Demands for Faster, safer, and more comfortable mobility under various road, weather and/or driving conditions have led to advanced engineering Features, such as 4WD, 4WS, and ABS. However, simple combination of these advanced components tend to induce the deterioration of the vehicle performance under certain conditions due to the interference among the related functions. This paper describes these conflicting areas and proposes newly developed integrated system in an effort to achieve the compatibility of each function among 4WD, 4 independent suspensions, 4WS, and ABS. The integrated system of these advanced engineering features has resulted safer and faster mobility in reasonably higher cost efficiency by the sophisticated system construction.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.