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Technical Paper

Welding Characteristics in Deformation Resistance Welding

Deformation Resistance Welding (DRW) is a process that employs resistance heating to raise the temperature of the materials being welded to the appropriate forging range, followed by shear deformation which increases the contacting surface area of the materials being welded. Because DRW is a new process, it became desirable to establish variable selection strategies which can be integrated into a production procedure. A factorial design of experiment was used to examine the influence of force, number of pulses, and weld cycles (heating/cooling time ratio) on the DRW process. Welded samples were tensile tested to determine their strength. Once tensile testing was complete, the resulting strengths were observed and compared to corresponding percent heat and percent reduction in thickness. Tensile strengths ranged from 107 kN to 22.2 kN. A relationship between the maximum current and the weld variables was established.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Effects of Friction in Gears: An Experimental Investigation

Amongst various sources of noise and vibrations in gear meshing, transmission error and sliding friction between the teeth are two major constituents. As the operating conditions are altered, the magnitude of these two excitations is affected differently and either of them can become the dominant factor. In this article, an experimental investigation is presented for identifying the friction excitation and to study the influence of tribological parameters on the radiated sound. Since both friction and transmission error excitations occur at the same fundamental period of one meshing cycle, they result in similar spectral contents in the dynamic response. Hence specific methods like the variation of parameters are designed in order to distinguish between the individual vibration and noise sources. The two main tribological parameters that are varied are the lubricant and the surface finish characteristics of gear teeth.
Technical Paper

Tube Hydroforming - State-of-the-Art and Future Trends

With the availability of advanced machine designs and controls, tube hydroforming has become an economic alternative to various stamping processes. The technology is relatively new so that there is no large “knowledge base” to assist the product and process designers. This paper reviews the fundamentals of tube hydroforming technology and discusses how various parameters, such as tube material properties, pre-form geometry, lubrication and process control affect product design and quality. In addition, relations between process variables and achievable part geometry are discussed. Finally, using examples, the status of the current technology and critical issues for future development are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Study of Whistles with a Generic Sidebranch

The coupling of shear layer instabilities with the acoustic resonances at the interface of two ducts, a main duct and a connecting sidebranch, leads to whistle noise. The present study investigates experimentally the mechanism of such pure tone noise. A generic sidebranch adapter is fabricated to allow for: (1) the ability to mount downstream of the throttle body in the induction system of a production engine; (2) the adjustment of sidebranch length; and (3) the changes in the diameter of the branch duct. Experiments are conducted both in a flow facility and an engine dynamometer facility for the same set of flow rates. The correlation of the whistle noise between these two facilities is examined in terms of frequency and the dimensionless numbers, including Strouhal and Mach.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation to Improve Quality and Increase Productivity in Rolling, Ring Rolling and Forging

The practical and proven use of computers in forming technology include: CAD/CAM for die making; transfer of geometric data from the customer's CAD/CAM system to that of the supplier and vice versa; application of artificial intelligence and expert systems for part and process design; simulation of metal flow to eliminate forging defects; prediction and optimization of process variables; and analysis of stresses in dies as well as prevention of premature die failure. Intelligent use of this information can lead to significant gains in product quality and productivity. This paper presents three examples of application of process simulation to forming : rolling, ring rolling and forging.
Technical Paper

On the Robustness of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Control

In order to improve the vehicle’s fuel economy while in cruise, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology has been adopted utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. In this paper, a focus is on robustness study of delivered fuel economy benefit of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier in the literature to several noise factors, e.g. vehicle weight, fuel type etc. Further, the vehicle position is obtained via GPS with finite precision and source of road grade preview might be inaccurate. The effect of inaccurate information of the road grade preview on the fuel economy benefits is studied and a remedy to it is established.
Journal Article

HMMWV Axle Testing Methodology to Determine Efficiency Improvements with Superfinished Hypoids

A dynamometer test methodology was developed for evaluation of HMMWV axle efficiency with hypoid gearsets, comparing those having various degrees of superfinish versus new production axles as well as used axles removed at depot maintenance. To ensure real-world applicability, a HMMWV variant vehicle model was created and simulated over a peacetime vehicle duty cycle, which was developed to represent a mission scenario. In addition, tractive effort calculations were then used to determine the maximum input torques. The drive cycle developed above was modified into two different profiles having varying degrees of torque variability to determine if the degree of variability would have a significant influence on efficiency in the transient dynamometer tests. Additionally, steady state efficiency performance is measured at four input pinion speeds from 700-2500 rpm, five input torques from 50 - 400 N⋅m, and two sump temperatures, 80°C and 110°C.
Technical Paper

Effect of Viscoelastic Patch Damping on Casing Cover Dynamics

Many automotive components and sub-systems require viscoelastic damping treatments to control noise and vibration characteristics. To aid the dynamic design process, new approaches are needed for modeling of partial damping treatments and characterization of the overall dynamic behavior. The analytical component of the design process is illustrated via the transmission casing cover, along with supporting experiments. First, the vibration response of production casing plates is examined, with and without the constrained layer treatment. A modified flat plate is employed along with a generic housing that provides the realistic boundary conditions for subsequent work. A simplified analytical damping model for constrained viscoelastic layer damping is suggested based on assumed modal functions. Using the analytical model, design guidelines in terms of optimal patch shapes and locations are suggested.
Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Exhaust Silencing System for a Production Engine

A prototype hybrid exhaust silencing system consisting of dissipative and reactive components is designed based on the boundary element method (BEM) with a specific emphasis on its acoustic performance as evaluated relative to a production system. The outer dimensions of the prototype system are comparable to its production counterpart, which has two silencers connected by a pipe. The predicted transmission loss by BEM for the prototype is compared with the experimental results in an impedance tube for both the prototype and production hardware, providing a design guidance for the former. The sound pressure levels measured at the tailpipe exit during the engine ramp-up experiments in a dynamometer laboratory are presented to compare the two systems, providing the final assessment.
Technical Paper

Automated Steering Controller for Vehicle Testing

Automating road vehicle control can increase the range and reliability of dynamic testing. Some tests, for instance, specify precise steering inputs which human test drivers are only able to approximate, adding uncertainty to the test results. An automated steering system has been developed which is capable of removing these limitations. This system enables any production car or light truck to follow a user-defined path, using global position feedback, or to perform specific steering sequences with excellent repeatability. The system adapts itself to a given vehicle s handling characteristics, and it can be installed and uninstalled quickly without damage or permanent modification to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Applications of Computer Simulations for Part and Process Design for Automotive Stampings

Recent studies in sheet metal forming, conducted at universities world wide, emphasize the development of computer aided techniques for process simulation. To be practical and acceptable in a production environment, these codes must be easy to use and allow relatively quick solutions. Often, it is not necessary to make exact predictions but rather to establish the influence of process variables upon part quality, tool stresses, material flow, and material thickness variation. In cooperation with its industrial partners, the ERC for Net Shape Manufacturing of the Ohio State University has applied a number of computer codes for analysis and design of sheet metal forming operations. This paper gives a few selected examples taken from automotive applications and illustrates practical uses of computer simulations to improve productivity and reduce tool development and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.