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Technical Paper

Fuel Volatility Effects on Mixture Preparation and Performance in a GDI Engine During Cold Start

The objective of this research was to characterize the effects of fuel component volatility on gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine cold start. Three different fuel components, representing gasoline light end, mid-point and heavy end components, were used to form three fuel blends of different volatility. Performance tests and in-cylinder fuel distribution imaging tests using these fuel blends were carried out in a firing single-cylinder optically-accessible engine following a simulated cold start test schedule. Performance results, based on in-cylinder pressure and engine-out hydrocarbon measurements, during the initial transient phase of GDI cold start showed significantly degraded performance with the low volatility fuel blend, while the high volatility blend showed slightly improved performance. Neither the low nor high volatility fuel, however, showed a discernable effect on the quasi-steady state cold start performance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Swirl and Tumble on Mixture Preparation During Cold Start of a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

The effects of intake-generated swirl and tumble on cold start performance have been investigated in a firing single-cylinder Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) engine. The engine utilizes a Ford Zetec cylinder head modified for GDI operation and a fused silica cylinder which provides extensive optical access to the combustion chamber. Uniquely designed port-inserts were positioned in the intake ports to generate enhanced swirling or tumbling motion inside the cylinder. Experiments were conducted using a constant speed (∼ 900 rpm) simulated cold start procedure, where the engine is motored for approximately 40 cycles, after which fuel injection and spark ignition commence and continue for 190 cycles and then the engine is stopped. Measurements were made of the various engine temperatures, engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions, and in-cylinder pressure throughout the test period.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Cycle-Resolved Flame Kernel Growth and Cylinder Pressure in an Optically-Accessible Engine

Flame kernel growth and cylinder pressure data were simultaneously obtained from an optically-accessible, square piston, SI engine. Flame kernel growth was measured using simultaneous, orthogonal, Schlieren photography, while cylinder pressure was measured using a piezoelectric pressure transducer. The data were analyzed on a cycle-resolved basis to determine the correlation between cyclic fluctuations in flame kernel growth and cylinder pressure. The engine was operated at 875 RPM with premixed, prevaporized, stoichiometric isooctane in air. The engine, designed with ported intake and exhaust, was fired every tenth cycle to ensure complete scavenging. Tests were conducted with and without nitrogen dilution, while ignition timing was fixed at 25° BTDC. With 0% dilution the percent variation in the maximum cylinder pressure was 8.5%, while with 10% dilution the percent variation increased to 14%.