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Technical Paper

Visual Aiming of European and U.S. Low-Beam Headlamps

This study evaluated the effect of the sharpness of the cutoff (the transition between the lighter and darker portions of the beam) of low-beam headlamps on visual vertical aiming. Out of ten lamps tested, seven had a U.S.-type beam pattern and three had a European-type beam pattern. Twenty younger and middle-aged subjects of both sexes, along with an experienced lamp aimer, were asked to adjust the vertical aim of the lamps in such a way that the cutoff of the beam was coincident with a horizontal line on a vertical surface. The subjects were instructed to make the alignment using the illumination gradient to the right of vertical for the U.S.-type lamps and to the left of vertical for the European-type lamps. Each person aimed each lamp ten times. There are two main results. First, the location of the perceived cutoff was generally near the location of the maximum contrast between adjacent vertical parts of the beam pattern.
Technical Paper

Variation in Autobody Adhesive Curing Process

Adhesive joining is a common autobody subassembly technique especially for outer panels, where visible spot welding is objectionable. To accommodate mass production with the use of certain adhesives very high thermal gradient usually exists, which may result in panel dimensional distortion and variation. The temperature distribution over location and over time are monitored, and its impact to panel dimension is investigated. Experimental results on the effect of the distance between panel and induction coil on the panel temperature is obtained. The thermal induced shape distortion is simulated with a simplified FEA model. The approach to improvement of the induction curing process is discussed.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Mid-Frequency Analysis of Vehicle Structures

The hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) has been developed for performing structure-borne computations in automotive vehicle structures [1, 2 and 3]. The hybrid FEA method combines conventional FEA with Energy FEA (EFEA). Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping and spring or mass elements are introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones. The component mode synthesis method is combined with analytical solutions for determining the driving point conductance at joints between stiff and flexible members and for defining the properties of the concentrated elements which represent the flexible members when analyzing the stiff components.
Technical Paper

Using Vehicle Dynamics Simulation as a Teaching Tool in Automotive Engineering Courses

Some of the best teaching methods are laboratory courses in which students experience application of the principles being presented. Preparing young engineering students for a career in the automotive industry challenges us to provide comparable opportunities to explore the dynamic performance of motor vehicles in a controlled environment. Today we are fortunate to have accurate and easy-to-use software programs making it practical for students to simulate the performance of motor vehicles on “virtual” proving grounds. At the University of Michigan the CarSim® vehicle dynamics simulation program has been introduced as such a tool to augment the learning experience. The software is used in the Automotive Engineering course to supplement homework exercises analyzing acceleration, braking, aerodynamics, and cornering performance. This paper provides an overview of the use of simulation in this setting.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Camera-Based Rear Vision Systems and Object-Detection Systems: Inferences from Crash Data

Advances in electronic countermeasures for lane-change crashes, including both camera-based rear vision systems and object-detection systems, have provided more options for meeting driver needs than were previously available with rearview mirrors. To some extent, human factors principles can be used to determine what countermeasures would best meet driver needs. However, it is also important to examine sets of crash data as closely as possible for the information they may provide. We review previous analyses of crash data and attempt to reconcile the implications of these analyses with each other as well as with general human factors principles. We argue that the data seem to indicate that the contribution of blind zones to lane-change crashes is substantial.
Technical Paper

The Role of Binocular Information for Distance Perception in Rear-Vision Systems

New developments in the use of two-dimensional displays to supplement driver vision have made it more important to understand the roles that various distance cues play in driver perception of distance in more conventional ways of viewing the road, including direct vision and viewing through rearview mirrors. The current study was designed to investigate the role of binocular distance cues for perception of distance in rearview mirrors. In a field experiment, we obtained data to estimate the importance of binocular cues for distance judgments under conditions representative of real-world traffic. The results indicate that, although binocular cues are potentially available to drivers, these cues probably play little or no role in distance judgments in rearview mirrors in normal driving situations.
Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Inlet Air Conditions on Carburetor Metering

This paper provides data concerning the enrichment of automotive carburetors with variation of inlet air pressure and temperature. These changes occur with weather and the seasons, with altitude, and because of underhood heating. The early opening of the conventional carburetor enrichment value at altitude can add greatly to the “ normal” carburetor enrichment. Means for compensating the mixture ratio for these changes in inlet air conditions are known, but will almost certainly add to the complexity and cost of the engine induction system. The cost of improved devices must be compromised with the possible reduction in exhaust emissions and improvement in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Vehicle Exhaust System Components on Flow Losses and Noise in Firing Spark-Ignition Engines

Sound attenuation and flow loss reduction are often two competing demands in vehicle breathing systems. The present study considers a full vehicle exhaust system and investigates both the sound attenuation and the flow performance of production configurations including the catalyst, the resonator, and the muffler. Dynamometer experiments have been conducted with a firing Ford 3.0L, V-6 engine at wide-open throttle with speeds ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Measurements including the flow rates, the temperatures and the absolute dynamic pressures of the hot exhaust gases at key locations (upstream and downstream of every component) with fast-response, water-cooled piezo-resistive pressure transducers facilitate the calculation of acoustic performance of each component, as well as the determination of flow losses caused by these elements and their influence on the engine performance.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Length on the Acoustic Attenuation Performance of Concentric Expansion Chambers: An Analytical, Computational, and Experimental Investigation

Expansion chambers are widely used in the breathing systems of engines due to their desirable broadband noise attenuation characteristics. Following an earlier analytical and computational work of Sahasrabudhe et al. (1992), the present study investigates the effect of the length on the acoustic attenuation performance of concentric expansion chambers. Three approaches are employed to determine the transmission loss: (1) a two-dimensional, axisymmetric analytical solution; (2) a three-dimensional computational solution based on the boundary element method; and (3) experiments on an extended impedance tube setup with nine expansion chambers fabricated with fixed inlet and outlet ducts, fixed chamber diameters, and varying chamber length to diameter ratios from to 3.53. The results from all three approaches are shown to agree well. The effect of multi-dimensional propagation is discussed in comparison with the classical treatment for the breakdown of planar waves.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Frequency Drops in Resonant Bending Fatigue Tests of Notched Crankshaft Sections

Resonant frequencies of a resonant bending system with notched crankshaft sections are obtained experimentally and numerically in order to investigate the effect of notch depth on the drop of the resonant frequency of the system. Notches with the depths ranging from 1 to 5 mm, machined by an EDM (Electrical-Discharging Machining) system, were introduced in crankshaft sections at the fillet between the main crank pin and crank cheek. The resonant frequencies of the resonant bending system with the crankshaft sections with various notch depths were first obtained from the experiments. Three-dimensional finite element models of the resonant bending system with the crankshafts sections with various notch depths are then generated. The resonant frequencies based on the finite element computations are in good agreement with those based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Support Vector Machine-Based Determination of Gasoline Direct Injected Engine Admissible Operating Envelope

Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have been gaining popularity as classifiers with good generalization ability. In an attempt to study their applicability to typical automotive problems, this paper investigates the modeling of the operating envelope for a direct injection gasoline (GDI) engine. This envelope defines the admissible ranges for key engine operating variables so that specified conditions on engine roughness and misfire are satisfied. The SVM model of the operating envelope is subsequently used by the engine control strategy to set engine operating variables such as spark and injection timing to avoid excessive engine roughness and misfire. Findings and conclusions from this study related to generalization ability and complexity of the SVM classifier models are summarized.
Technical Paper

Strength and Balance Guided Posture Selection during a Battery Maintenance Task

Posture selection during standing exertions is a complex process involving tradeoffs between muscle strength and balance. Bodyweight utilization reduces the amount of upper-body strength required to perform a high force push/pull exertion but shifts the center-of-gravity towards the limits of the functional stability region. Thus balance constraints limit the extent to which bodyweight can be used to generate push/pull forces. This paper examines a two-handed sagittal plane pulling exertion performed during a battery maintenance task on a member of the family of medium-sized tactical vehicles (FMTV). Percent capable strength predictions and functional balance capabilities were determined for various two-handed pulling postures using the University of Michigan's 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP). Through this simulation study, preferred postures that minimize joint torques while maintaining balance were identified.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Testing of Self-Locking Bolts

This paper discusses the general principles governing the action of free spinning, self-locking bolts. The concept presented is that the bolt, and the parts it holds, acts as a spring, and it is shown that this leads logically to measuring the work done to remove a self-locking bolt as well as measuring its breakaway torque. Equipment for such tests is illustrated and typical test results are given. Finally, some remarks are made concerning the basic mechanisms by which vibratory motion loosens bolts.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Loads under Combined Mode Loading Conditions

Failure loads of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain maximum loads of spot welds under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different loading rates. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot welds before and after failure were obtained to understand the failure processes under various loading rates and different combinations of loads. The experimental results indicate that under nearly pure opening loads, the failure occurs along the nugget circumferential boundary. Under combined opening and shear loading conditions, the failure starts from the tensile side of the base metal near the nugget in a necking/shear failure mode. The effects of sheet thickness and combined load on the load carrying behavior of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Manual Handling Motions Via Motion Modification: Performance Evaluation of Motion Modification Algorithm

Simulation of human motions in virtual environments is an essential component of human CAD (Computer-aided Design) systems. In our earlier SAE papers, we introduced a novel motion simulation approach termed Memory-based Motion Simulation (MBMS). MBMS utilizes existing motion databases and predicts novel motions by modifying existing ‘root’ motions through the use of the motion modification algorithm. MBMS overcomes some limitations of existing motion simulation models, as 1) it simulates different types of motions on a single, unified framework, 2) it simulates motions based on alternative movement techniques, and 3) like real humans, it can learn new movement skills continually over time. The current study evaluates the prediction accuracy of MBMS to prove its utility as a predictive tool for computer-aided ergonomics. A total of 627 whole-body one-handed load transfer motions predicted by the algorithm are compared with actual human motions obtained in a motion capture experiment.
Technical Paper

Servo Guns for Resistance Spot Welding

Resistance spot welding (RWS) guns driven by servomotors instead of pneumatic cylinders are called servo guns. They bring many new features to RWS process. In this study, the influences of servo guns on RSW process are systematically investigated based on comparative experiments. In addition, the costs of servo guns are also analyzed. The long-term applications of servo guns will be cost effective due to their technical features and savings on pneumatic systems although the acquisition cost of servo guns is high. Therefore, servo gun is an excellent alternative RSW machine for sheet metal assembly.