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Technical Paper

Updated Prediction of the Physical Properties Needed for Modeling the Spray Behavior of Biodiesel Fuel

It has been recognized that density, viscosity, surface tension, and volatility of liquid fuel are of great importance on the atomization and vaporization characteristics of biodiesel spray. This paper presents a comprehensive physical property prediction of biodiesel fuel for spray modeling with most recently developed property prediction models. The temperature-dependent properties of a soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel were well predicted by the updated prediction methods. Then, the physical properties of the SME biodiesel were added into the KIVA-3V fuel library. By using the well predicted fuel properties, the spray behaviors of SME were successfully simulated by the KIVA-3V code under late-cycle post-injection, conventional diesel injection, and early-injection engine-relevant conditions. The simulation results agree reasonably well with the available experimental liquid penetrations under conditions of various ambient densities and temperatures.
Technical Paper

The Optimization of Intake Port using Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network for Gasoline Engines

The flow performance of intake port significantly affects engine output power, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions in gasoline engines. Thus, optimal intake port geometry is desired in gasoline engines. To optimize the flow performance of intake port, a new optimization method combining genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) was proposed. First, an automatic system for generating the geometry of the tangential intake port was constructed to create various port geometries through inputting the 18 pre-defined structural parameters. Then, the effects of four critical structural parameters were investigated through numerical simulation. On the basis of the computational results, an ANN was used to model the flow performance of the intake port, and a genetic algorithm was simultaneously employed to optimize the flow performance by optimizing the four important structural parameters. Finally, the optimization results were verified through numerical simulation.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Study on Spatial Characteristics of the In-Cylinder Flow Field in an I.C. Engine Using PIV

In-cylinder flow characteristics in a four-stroke diesel engine were studied experimentally by instantaneous measurements of swirl and squish flow velocity distribution with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The triple-exposed PIV films were interrogated on a self-made system to get the velocity distribution. The measured velocities were analyzed by spatially high-pass and low-pass filtering techniques. Vorticity distributions were also calculated using the measured data. As results, vortex structure of the flow field was clearly visualized. Spatially averaged in-cylinder flow energy was found decaying at high rate but the less-scaled flow components at much lower rate. Clearly visualized squish and reverse squish movements around the top dead center (TDC) during the compression stroke were found strongly affecting the swirl flow field. making the in-bowl flow energy increased.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of n-Butanol in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber at Different Oxygen Concentrations

A very competitive alcohol for use in diesel engines is butanol. Butanol is of particular interest as a renewable bio-fuel, as it is less hydrophilic and it possesses higher heating value, higher cetane number, lower vapor pressure, and higher miscibility than ethanol or methanol. These properties make butanol preferable to ethanol or methanol for blending with conventional diesel or gasoline fuel. In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of pure n-butanol fuel was experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber. The ambient temperatures were set to 1000 K, and three different oxygen concentrations were set to 21%, 16%, and 10.5%. The results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of ambient oxygen concentration. The combustion pressure and heat release rate demonstrate the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with decreasing of oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Research on Relativity of Knock Sensor Signal and Gasoline HCCI Combustion Obtained with Trapping Residual Gas

A great deal of effort has been directed towards Gasoline HCCI engines, which have the potential of providing better fuel economy and emission characteristics than conventional SI engines. For stable HCCI engine operation, cycle-by-cycle based closed-loop control is needed. Such a control scheme requires an accurate and reliable sensor to monitor the combustion and provide a feedback signal. At present, the general method used to measure the combustion parameters is to monitor in-cylinder pressure with a cylinder pressure sensor. However, using in-cylinder pressure transducers is not feasible for use in mass production of HCCI engines. A good substitute to get information about combustion is the knock sensor, which is already equipped on engines on a large scale. In this paper, the knock signal from an HCCI engine equipped with 4VVAS is analyzed in detail to find the relationship between the combustion parameters and the knock sensor signal.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Journal Article

Quantitative Study of Concentration and Temperature of a Diesel Spray by Using Planar Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence Technique

The Lambert-Beer's coefficient K was measured in a wide range of temperatures (400-1200K) and pressures (2-8.2 MPa) in this paper. Based on the measured MAP of K and principle of energy conservation in the sprays mass and transfer, a quantitative presentation of equivalence ratio and temperature in vapor phase sprays at diesel engine like conditions was put forward. The experimental range of temperatures was 800-1100K and 20-100 kg/m₃ for density. It was found that the maximum equivalence ratio of vapor phase spray remained fairly constant at about 3.0 and the maximum equivalence ratio appearance earlier as the ambient density increased, while the ambient temperature in the constant volume vessel was set at 800K. The maximum equivalence ratio of vapor phase spray increased from about 3.0 to about 3.7 as ambient temperature increased from 800 to 1100K.
Technical Paper

Potentials of External Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Water Injection for the Improvement in Fuel Economy of a Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Two-Stage Serial Charging System

Engine downsizing is one of the most effective means to improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines because of lower pumping and friction losses. However, the occurrence of knocking combustion or even low-speed pre-ignition at high loads is a severe problem. One solution to significantly increase the upper load range of a 4-stroke gasoline engine is to use 2-stroke cycle due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. It was found that a 0.7 L two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve gasoline engine equipped with a two-stage serial boosting system, comprising a supercharger and a downstream turbocharger, could replace a 1.6 L naturally aspirated 4-stroke gasoline engine in our previous research, but its fuel economy was close to that of the 4-stroke engine at upper loads due to knocking combustion.
Technical Paper

PAIRCUI- A New Pressure Accumulative, Injection Rate Controllable Unit Injector for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

A pressure accumulative injection rate controllable unit injector-PAIRCUI is proposed and developed. This unit injector is powered by fuel pressure accumulation controlled by an electronic control unit and its injection rate is shaped by inner valves of the injector. Inherent advantages of an accumulator type unit injector have been carried out in this new design, including sructural simplicity, totally flexible injection timing, medium common rail pressure, tolerable pump size and flow requirement. A number of decisive features have also been realized that are significant for high efficiency and low emissions of engine combustion, including higher mean effective injection pressure(MEIP), pilot injection capability and rapid end of injection. The injection pressure is independent of engine speed, but regulated upon engine load. These characteristics are beneficial in improving engine performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of In-Cylinder Flow for Fuel Stratification in a Three-Valve Twin-Spark-Plug SI Engine

In-cylinder flow was optimised in a three-valve twin-spark-plug SI engine in order to obtain good two-zone fuel fraction stratification in the cylinder by means of tumble flow. First, the in-cylinder flow field of the original intake system was measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results showed that the original intake system did not produce large-scale in-cylinder flow and the velocity value was very low. Therefore, some modifications were applied to the intake system in order to generate the required tumble flow. The modified systems were then tested on a steady flow rig. The results showed that the method of shrouding the lower part of the intake valves could produce rather higher tumble flow with less loss of the flow coefficient than other methods. The optimised intake system was then consisted of two shroud plates on the intake valves with 120° angles and 10mm height. The in-cylinder flow of the optimised intake system was investigated by PIV measurements.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of RCCI and HCCI Combustion Processes Using Gasoline, Diesel, iso-Butanol and DTBP Cetane Improver

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be an attractive concept to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. RCCI can be realized by applying two fuels with different reactivities, e.g., diesel and gasoline. This motivates the idea of using a single low reactivity fuel and direct injection (DI) of the same fuel blended with a small amount of cetane improver to achieve RCCI combustion. In the current study, numerical investigation was conducted to simulate RCCI and HCCI combustion and emissions with various fuels, including gasoline/diesel, iso-butanol/diesel and iso-butanol/iso-butanol+di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) cetane improver. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-iso-butanol-DTBP mechanism was formulated and coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict the combustion and emissions of these fuels under different operating conditions in a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ignition Core Formation and the Effects on Combustion in a Pilot Ignited NG Engine

A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the pilot ignited natural gas combustion process in a direct injection natural gas engine. Various mixture distribution characteristics were compared in terms of the evolution of mixture equivalent ratio distributions and mixture concentration stratifications around top dead center (TDC). Based on above, the pilot injections were specially designed to investigate ignition core formation and its effects on natural gas combustion process. The result shows that pilot ignition sites have great impacts on pilot fuel ignition process and natural gas combustion process. The pilot ignition site on the region with rich NG/Air mixture is disadvantageous to the pilot fuel ignition due to a lack of oxygen, which is not beneficial to ignition core formation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector: A Comparative Study of Different Breakup Models

The outward-opening piezoelectric injector can achieve stable fuel/air mixture distribution and multiple injections in a single cycle, having attracted great attentions in direct injection gasoline engines. In order to realise accurate predictions of the gasoline spray with the outward-opening piezoelectric injector, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the gasoline spray with different droplet breakup models were performed in the commercial CFD software STAR-CD and validated by the corresponding measurements. The injection pressure was fixed at 180 bar, while two different backpressures (1 and 10 bar) were used to evaluate the robustness of the breakup models. The effects of the mesh quality, simulation timestep, breakup model parameters were investigated to clarify the overall performance of different breakup model in modeling the gasoline sprays.
Technical Paper

Number-Based Droplet Velocity Distribution in High Pressure Diesel Fuel Sprays

Using a Laser Doppler Velocimetry with Burst Spectrum Analyzer (LDV-BSA), droplet velocities of a diesel fuel spray under a pressure higher than 100 MPa were measured at different points within the spray profile. Results show that although the mean velocity distribution at the sampling plane is rather uniform, the number-based droplet velocity distributions of two sampling points at the same plane are different. The conclusions agree with theoretical predictions through maximum entropy principle qualitatively.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spray Behaviors of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in Biodiesel Fuels under Engine-Relevant Conditions

Spray behaviors of pure biodiesel and its blend with conventional diesel have been substantially studied in the last decade. However, the studies on the spray behaviors of pure fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are scarce. The primary components of most biodiesel fuels are methyl palmitate (C16:0), methyl stearate (C18:0), methyl oleate (C18:1), methyl linoleate (C18:2) and methyl linolenate (C18:3), and methyl laurate (C12:0) is also the dominant component of some biodiesels. In this study, the spray behaviors of the aforementioned six FAMEs in biodiesel fuels under engine-relevant conditions were numerically studied using the KIVA-3V code. The physical properties needed for spray modeling were predicted with most recently developed property prediction models and added into the fuel library of KIVA-3V. The transient behaviors of liquid penetrations and vaporization characteristics of these FAMEs were numerically studied under various engine-relevant conditions.

Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines

The increasing concern about CO2 emissions and energy prices has led to new CO2 emission and fuel economy legislation being introduced in world regions served by the automotive industry. In response, automotive manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are developing a new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines with ultra-low emissions and high fuel efficiency. To further this development, a better understanding is needed of the combustion and pollutant formation processes in IC engines. As efficiency and emission abatement processes have reached points of diminishing returns, there is more of a need to make measurements inside the combustion chamber, where the combustion and pollutant formation processes take place. However, there is currently no good overview of how to make these measurements.