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Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Combined Power and Cooling Cycle Driven by the Exhaust Heat Form a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0858
A novel combined power and cooling cycle based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the Compression Refrigeration Cycle (CRC) is proposed. The cycle can be driven by the exhaust heat from a diesel engine. In this combined cycle, ORC will translate the exhaust heat into power, and drive the compressor of CRC. The prime advantage of the combined cycle is that both the ORC and CRC are trans-critical cycles, and using CO₂ as working fluid. Natural, cheap, environmentally friendly, nontoxic and good heat transfer properties are some advantages of CO₂ as working fluid. In this paper, besides the basic combined cycle (ORC-CRC), another three novel cycles: ORC-CRC with an expander (ORC-CRCE), ORC with an internal heat exchanger as heat accumulator combined with CRC (ORCI-CRC), ORCI-CRCE, are analyzed and compared.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Practical Mechanisms on Lowering Exhaust Emission Levels for Diverse Types of Spark Ignition Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1545
The exhaust aftertreatment strategy is one of the most fundamental aspects of spark ignition engine technologies. For various types of engines (e.g., carburetor engine, PFI engine and GDI engine), measuring, purifying, modeling, and control strategies regarding the exhaust aftertreatment systems vary significantly. The primary goal of exhaust aftetreatment systems is to reduce the exhaust emission levels of NOx, HC and CO as well as to lower combustion soot. In general, there is a tradeoff among different engine performance aspects. The exhaust catalytic systems, such as the three way catalyst (TWC) and lean NOx trap (LNT) converters, can be applied together with the development of other engine technologies (e.g., variable valve timing, cold start). With respect to engine soot, some advanced diagnosing techniques are essential to obtain thorough investigation of exhaust emission mechanisms.
Journal Article

The Effects of EGR and Injection Timing on the Engine Combustion and Emission Performances Fueled by Butanol-Diesel Blends

2012-04-01
2011-01-2473
The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on butanol-diesel blends were investigated in this study. The blending ratio of n-butanol to diesel was varied from 0 to 40 vol% using an increment of 10 vol%, and each blend was tested on a 2.7 L V6 common rail direction injection diesel engine equipped with an EGR system. The test was carried out under two engine loads at a constant engine speed, using various combinations of EGR ratios and injection timings. Test results indicate that n-butanol addition to engine fuel is able to substantially decrease soot emission from raw exhaust gas, while the change in NOx emissions varies depending on the n-butanol content and engine operating conditions. Increasing EGR ratio and retarding injection timing are effective approaches to reduce NOx emissions from combustion of n-butanol-diesel blends.
Technical Paper

Surface Functional Groups and Graphitization Degree of Soot in the Sooting History of Methane Premixed Flame

2017-03-28
2017-01-1003
The evolution of surface functional groups (SFGs) and the graphitization degree of soot generated in premixed methane flames are studied and the correlation between them is discussed. Test soot samples were obtained from an optimized thermophoretic sampling system and probe sampling system. The SFGs of soot were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after removing the soluble impurities from the soot samples, while the graphitization degree of soot was characterized by Raman spectrum and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results reveal that the number of aliphatic C-H groups and C=O groups shows an initial increase and then decrease in the sooting history. The large amount of aliphatic C-H groups and small amount of aromatic C-H groups in the early stage of the soot mass growth process indicate that aliphatic C-H groups make a major contribution to the early stage of soot mass growth.
Journal Article

Study on the Double Injection Strategy of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion under a Light-Duty Optical Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2299
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a potential combustion concept to achieve high engine efficiency as well as low NOx and soot emissions. But the in-cylinder process of PPC is not well understood. In the present study, the double injection strategy of PPC was investigated on a light-duty optical engine. The fuel/air mixing and combustion process of PPC was evaluated by fuel-tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and high-speed natural luminosity imaging technique, respectively. Combustion emission spectra of typical double injection case were analyzed. The primary reference fuel, PRF70 (70% iso-octane and 30% n-heptane by volume) was chosen as the lower reactivity fuel like gasoline. Double injection strategies of different first fuel injection timing and mass ratio of the two fuel injections were comparatively studied.
Technical Paper

Study on Methods of Coupling Numerical Simulation of Conjugate Heat Transfer and In-Cylinder Combustion Process in GDI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0576
Wall temperature in GDI engine is influenced by both water jacket and gas heat source. In turn, wall temperature affects evaporation and mixing characteristics of impingement spray as well as combustion process and emissions. Therefore, in order to accurately simulate combustion process, accurate wall temperature is essential, which can be obtained by conjugate heat transfer (CHT) and piston heat transfer (PHT) models based on mapping combustion results. This CHT model considers temporal interaction between solid parts and cooling water. This paper presents an integrated methodology to reliably predict in-cylinder combustion process and temperature field of a 2.0L GDI engine which includes engine head/block/gasket and water jacket components. A two-way coupling numerical procedure on the basis of this integrated methodology is as follows.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics of High-Speed Solenoid Injectors by Means of Contactless Measurement

2017-10-08
2017-01-2313
In-cylinder direct-injected technology provides a flexible and accurate optimization for internal combustion engines to reduce emission and improve fuel efficiency. With increasingly stringent requirements for the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and CO2, the content of injections in an engine combustion cycle has reached 7 to 9 times in gasoline direct injection (GDI) and the diesel engine with high-pressure common rail (HPCR). Accurate control of both time and quantity of injection is critical for engine performance and emissions, while the dynamic response of injector spray characteristics is a key factor. In this paper, a test bench was built for monitoring the dynamic response of solenoid injectors with high-speed micro-photography and synchronous current collection system. Experimental studies on the dynamic response of GDI and HPCR solenoid injectors were carried out.
Technical Paper

Selection of Swirl Ratio in Diesel Engines Based on Droplet Trajectory Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0813
Matching fuel injection and airflow motion is critical for the optimization of fuel-air mixing and combustion process in diesel engines. In this study, the effects of swirl flow on liquid droplet motion and the selection of swirl ratio, which are known as the major concern in organizing airflow motion, were investigated based on theoretical analysis of droplet trajectories. The evaporating droplets with various initial conditions are assumed to be transported in a solid-body-like swirl field, and their trajectories were derived based on force analysis. To evaluate fuel-air mixing quality, a new parameter with respect to fuel vapor distribution was proposed. Based on this methodology, the effects of swirl velocity, droplet size, as well as liquid-gas density ratio on droplet trajectory were discussed under diesel-engine-like boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop and Soot Regeneration Characteristics through Hexagonal and Square Cell Diesel Particulate Filters

2017-03-28
2017-01-0979
Although diesel engines have higher output torque, lower fuel consumption, and lower HC pollutant emissions, larger amounts of NOx and PM are emitted, compared with equivalent gasoline engines. The diesel particulate filters (DPF) have proved one of the most promising aftertreatment technologies due to the more stringent particulate matters (PM) regulations. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of DPF was built by utilizing AVL-Fire software code. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the pressure drop and soot regeneration characteristics of hexagonal and conventional square cell DPFs with various inlet mass flow rates, inlet temperatures, cell densities, soot loads and ash loads. Different cell geometry shapes of DPF were evaluated under various ash distribution types.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop and Soot Accumulation Characteristics through Diesel Particulate Filters Considering Various Soot and Ash Distribution Types

2017-03-28
2017-01-0959
Although diesel engines offer higher thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption, larger amounts of Particulate Matters (PM) are emitted in comparison with gasoline engines. The Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) have proved one of the most promising technologies due to the “particle number” emissions regulations. In this study, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) multi-channel model of DPF was built properly by utilizing AVL-Fire software code to evaluate the pressure drop and soot accumulation characteristics of DPF. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of soot (capacity and deposit forms) and ash (capacity and distribution factors) interaction on DPF pressure drop and soot accumulation, as well as the effects of DPF boundary conditions (inlet mass flow rate and inlet temperature) on pressure drop.
Technical Paper

Optical Experiments on Strong Knocking Combustion in Rapid Compression Machines with Different Fuels

2019-04-02
2019-01-1142
Nowadays the strong knocking combustion involving destructive pressure wave or shock wave has become the main bottleneck for highly boosted engines when pursuing high thermal efficiency. However, its fundamental mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, synchronization measurements through simultaneous pressure acquisition and high-speed direct photography were performed to comparatively investigate the strong knocking combustion of iso-octane and propane in a rapid compression machine with flat piston design. The pressure characteristics and visualized images of autoignition and reaction wave propagation were compared, and the correlations between thermodynamic trajectories and mixture reactivity progress were analyzed. The results show that iso-octane behaves a greater propensity to strong knocking combustion than propane at similar target pressures.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Effects of Oxygen-Enriched Air and Intake Air Humidification on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1788
In order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions restriction, it is indispensable to improve the combustion and emissions technology of high-speed marine diesel engines. Oxygen-enriched combustion and intake air humidification are effective ways to control pollution from diesel engines and improve combustion of diesel engines. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of supercharged intercooled marine diesel engine with humidity ratio and intake oxygen concentration were investigated by using multi-dimensional CFD model. The combustion model was established by AVL Fire code. The combination strategy of intake air humidification and oxygen-enriched combustion were optimized under partial load at 1350 rpm.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Potential of Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) Coupled with Double Diesel Direct-Injection Strategy for Meeting High Fuel Efficiency with Ultra-Low Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine at High Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-1166
The potential of diesel/gasoline RCCI combustion coupled with late intake valve closing (LIVC) and double direct injection of diesel for meeting high fuel efficiency with ultra-low emissions was investigated in this study. The study was aiming at high load operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the reactivity stratification of RCCI combustion, the employment of double injection of diesel fuel provided concentration stratification of the high-reactivity fuel, which is to further realize effective control of the combustion process. Meanwhile, late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy is introduced to control the maximum in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Intake Flow of a Four-Valve Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2211
The intake process plays an important role in the operation of internal combustion engines. In the present study, a three-dimensional transient simulation of a four-valve diesel engine was performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model based on software CONVERGE. The mean velocity components in three directions through the intake valve curtain, the flow separation around the intake valves, the influences of inlet jet on turbulence flow field and cycle-to-cycle variation were investigated in this work. The result shows that the mean velocity distributes non-uniformly near the valve curtain at high valve lifts. In contrast, the mean velocity distribution is uniform at low valve lifts. It is found that the flow separation occurs at valve stem, valve seat and valve sealing through the outlet of the helical port. In contrast, flow separation is only observed in the valve seat through the outlet of the tangential port.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification of a Diesel Engine Using Inverse Boundary Element Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0729
The inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is presented to accurately identify the noise sources of a diesel engine in this study. The sound pressures on four near-field planes were measured as inputs for the method. Then, the acoustic model of the full diesel engine was established using the boundary element method, and the acoustic transfer vectors (ATV) between the surface normal velocity and acoustic pressure at field points were calculated over the frequency range of interest. Based on the measured sound pressure and the ATVs, the surface normal velocity distribution of the diesel engine was reconstructed by the IBEM. The reconstructed pressures at two reference field points were compared with the measured ones. Furthermore, the panel contribution of each engine component was analyzed through the reconstructed surface velocity.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Soot Formation with Highlight in Effects of Surface Activity on Soot Growth for Diesel Engine Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1104
In this study, Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) on a modified heavy-duty diesel engine was realized by hybrid combustion control strategy with flexible fuel injection timing, injection rate pattern modulation and high ratio of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at different engine loads. It features with different degrees of fuel/air mixture stratifications. The very low soot emissions of the experiments called for further understanding on soot formation mechanism so that to promote the capability of prediction. A new soot model was developed with highlight in effects of surface activity on soot growth for soot formation prediction in partially premixed combustion diesel engine. According to previous results from literatures on the importance of acetylene as growth specie of PAH and soot surface growth, a gas-phase reduced kinetic model of acetylene formation was developed and integrated into the new soot model.
Technical Paper

Initial Stress and Manufacture Stress Testing in Transparent Material

2007-04-16
2007-01-1215
Transparent materials such as Plexiglas and glass are applied in airplane and boat widely as the windows and hatches. There are three type stresses in the structure made of Plexiglas or glass, which are residual stresses from the casting, residual stresses due to manufacturing process involving sheet forming structure and the stresses from serving period. In the paper the stresses are studied by laser scattered Photoelasticy method. Phase shift method is presented to recognize scattered light patterns automatically. The residual stresses in Plexiglas plate and shell were analyzed by thin plate-shell theory. Stresses in the Plexiglas and shell were tested by laser scattered Photoelastic method.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modelling Investigations of the Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0741
In this work the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion characterized by both premixed gasoline port injection and gasoline direct injection in a single-cylinder diesel engine was investigated experimentally and computationally. In the experiment, the premixed ratio (PR), injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were varied with the pressure rise rate below 10 bar/crank angle. The experimental results showed that higher PR and earlier injection timing resulted in advanced combustion phasing and improved thermal efficiency, while the pressure rise rates and NOx emissions increased. Besides, a lowest ISFC of 176 g/kWh (corresponding to IMEP =7.24 bar) was obtained, and the soot emissions could be controlled below 0.6 FSN. Despite that NOx emission was effectively reduced with the increase of EGR, HC and CO emissions were high. However, it showed that GCI combustion of this work was sensitive to EGR, which may restrict its future practical application.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on High-Load Extension of Gasoline/PODE Dual-Fuel RCCI Operation Using Late Intake Valve Closing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0754
The dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion could achieve high efficiency and low emissions over a wide range of operating conditions. However, further high load extension is limited by the excessive pressure rise rate and soot emission. Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODE), a novel diesel alternative fuel, has the capability to achieve stoichiometric smoke-free RCCI combustion due to its high oxygen content and unique molecule structure. In this study, experimental investigations on high load extension of gasoline/PODE RCCI operation were conducted using late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy and intake boosting in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental results show that the upper load can be effectively extended through boosting and LIVC with gasoline/PODE stoichiometric operation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Injections and Coupling Effects of Multi-Injection and EGR in a HD Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2807
Diesel engines have to reduce emissions to satisfy future emission legislations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of multiple injections and the combined effects of multi-injection and EGR on HD diesel engine emissions and performance. A common rail fuel injection system and high pressure EGR system based on variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) were used. Injection parameters (injection dwell and mass) were adjusted with different injection strategies (pilot-main, pilot-pilot-main, main-post and pilot-main-post) to find out the influence of these parameters on combustion and emissions. Secondly the coupling effects of multi-injection and EGR were evaluated at both high and low loads. Finally, while keeping NOx at 2.0 g/kW.h by adjusting EGR rate, the influence of injection parameters and EGR were tested to highlight their influence on smoke and BSFC.
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