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Technical Paper

Topology Optimization of Metal and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Structures under Loading Uncertainties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0709
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials have gained particular interests due to their high specific modulus, high strength, lightweight and perfect corrosion resistance. However, in reality, CFRP composite materials cannot be used alone in some critical places such as positions of joints with hinges, locks. Therefore, metal reinforcements are usually necessary in local positions to prevent structure damage. Besides, if uncertainties present, obtained optimal structures may experience in failures as the optimization usually pushes solutions to the boundaries of constraints and has no room for tolerance and uncertainties, so robust optimization should be considered to accommodate the uncertainties in practice. This paper proposes a mixed topology method to optimize metal and carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite materials simultaneously under nondeterministic load with random magnitude and direction.
Technical Paper

Study on Test Scenarios of Environment Perception System under Rear-End Collision Risk

2018-04-03
2018-01-1079
The foundation of both advanced driving assistance system(ADAS) and automated driving (AD) is an accurate environment perception system(EPS). However, evaluation and test method of EPS are seldom studied. In this paper, naturalistic driving environment was studied and test scenarios for EPS under rear-end collision risk were proposed accordingly. To describe driving environment, a new concept named environment perception element(EPE) was first proposed in this paper, which refers to all the objects that the EPS must perceive during driving. Typical environment perception elements include weather and light conditions, road features, road markings, traffic signs, traffic lights, other vehicles, pedal cyclists and pedestrians and others. Driving behaviors collected in Shanghai, China were classified and rear-end collision risk scenarios were obtained and described using EPEs. Probability distribution of EPEs was therefore obtained.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Testing Technology of Powertrain System in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: A Review

2019-04-02
2019-01-0371
The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) vehicle is one kind of new energy vehicle with fuel cell as power source, which has environmental friendliness, high power density and quick refueling. However, the productlization testing in powertrain system, especially for subsystems and key parts, is one of the critical technical challenges, which restricts the industry development and large-scale commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In this paper, comprehensive testing requirement and latest testing technologies were reviewed, the development status and directions of testing technologies in FCEV powertrain system were presented. Based on comprehensive analysis, X-in-the-Loop (XiL) testing technology was proposed, and it is quite helpful to improve Real-time testing performance and functions for FCEV powertrain system. Furthermore, real-time and reliability as the two key factors for the XiL application was deeply analyzed and discussed.
Journal Article

Investigation on Dynamic Recovery Behavior of Boron Steel 22MnB5 under Austenite State at Elevated Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1057
Hot forming process of ultrahigh strength boron steel 22MnB5 is widely applied in vehicle industry. It is one of the most effective approaches for vehicle light weighting. Dynamic recovery is the major softening mechanism of the boron steel under austenite state at elevated temperatures. Deformation mechanism of the boron steel can be revealed by investigation on the behavior of dynamic recovery, which could also improve the accuracy of forming simulations for hot stamping. Uniaxial tensile experiments of the boron steel are carried out on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble3800 at elevated temperatures. The true stress-strain curves and the relations between the work hardening rate and flow stress are obtained in different deformation conditions. The work hardening rate decreases linearly with increasing the flow stress.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Factors Controlling the Attainable Equivalent Plastic Strain in the Gauge Region of Cruciform Specimens

2018-04-03
2018-01-0809
The maximum equivalent plastic strain (EPSmax), which can be achieved in the gauge region of a cruciform specimen during in-plane biaxial tensile tests, is limited due to early fracture on the cruciform specimen arm. In this paper, a theoretical model was proposed to determine the factors related to the EPSmax of a cruciform specimen following ISO 16842: 2014. Biaxial tensile tests were carried out to verify the theoretical analyses. Results show that the material strength coefficient (k) has no effect on the EPSmax, and EPSmax increases with the increase of the material hardening exponent (n) and the cross-sectional-area ratio (c) of the arm region to the gauge region. It is found that the applied load ratio (α) has an effect on EPSmax, which decreases as the load ratio increases from 0:1 (i.e. uniaxial tension) to 1:2 (i.e. plane strain state) and then increases as the load ratio increases to 1:1 (i.e. balanced biaxial tension).
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Ability Testing for Automotive Ethernet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0755
With the introduction of BroadR-Reach and time-sensitive networking (TSN), Ethernet has become an option for in-vehicle networks (IVNs). Although it has been used in the IT field for decades, it is a new technology for automotive, and thus requires extensive testing. Current test solutions usually target specifications rather than the in-vehicle environment, which means that some properties are still uncertain for in-vehicle usage (e.g., fault tolerance for shorted or open wires). However, these characteristics must be cleared before applying Ethernet in IVNs, because of stringent vehicular safety requirements. Because CAN is usually used for these environments, automotive Ethernet is expected to have the same or better level of fault tolerance. Both CAN and BroadR-Reach use a single pair of twisted wires for physical media; thus, the traditional fault-tolerance test method can be applied for automotive Ethernet.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics at Different Altitudes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0308
In this study, effects of altitude on free diesel spray morphology, macroscopic spray characteristics and air-fuel mixing process were investigated. The diesel spray visualization experiment using high-speed photography was performed in a constant volume chamber which reproduced the injection diesel-like thermodynamic conditions of a heavy-duty turbocharged diesel engine operating at sea level and 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m above sea level. The results showed that the spray morphology became narrower and longer at higher altitude, and small vortex-like structures were observed on the downstream spray periphery. Spray penetration increased and spray angle decreased with increasing altitude. At altitudes of 0 m, 1000 m, 2000 m, 3000 m and 4500 m, the spray penetration at 1.45 ms after start of injection (ASOI) were 79.54 mm, 80.51 mm, 81.49 mm, 83.29 mm and 88.92 mm respectively, and the spray angle were 10.9°, 10.8°, 10.7°, 10.4°and 9.8° respectively.
Journal Article

Experimental Study of the Plasticity Responses of TRIP780 Steel Subjected to Strain-Path Changes

2016-04-05
2016-01-0363
The work-hardening response of TRIP780 steel subjected to strain-path changes was investigated using two-stage tension experiments. Large specimens were prestrained and then sub-sized samples were subjected to tension along various directions. The influence of strain-path changes on flow stress and work hardening performance was discussed in detail. The specific plastic work was calculated to compare the kinematic hardening behaviour after strain-path changes. The results showed that transient hardening was observed for TRIP780 sheets subjected to orthogonal strain-path change. The strain-hardening exponent (n-value) was influenced by prestraining levels and the strain path. The n-value exhibited a greater decrease under an orthogonal strain-path change. Prestraining can delay the onset of high work hardenability of TRIP steels. It is meaningful for the safety design of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Application Oriented Testcase Generation for Validation of Environment Perception Sensor in Automated Driving Systems

2018-08-07
2018-01-1614
Validation is one of the main challenges in development of automated driving systems (ADS). Due to the complexity of these systems and the various influence factors on their functional safety, current testcase generation methods can hardly guarantee the completeness and effectivity of the validation on system level. Separate validation of system components is a way to make system approval possible. In this paper, an approach is presented to generate deductively testcases for the validation of the environment perception sensors, which are the most essential components of ADS. This approach is originated from the model-based testing method, which is commonly used to validate software-based systems and extended by considering various external influence factors as follows: By modeling and analyzing applications in ADS, application oriented usecases of perception sensors are first derived.
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