Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 3 of 3
Technical Paper

Investigation of Anteroposterior Head-Neck Responses during Severe Frontal Impacts Using a Brain-Spinal Cord Complex FE Model

Injuries of the human brain and spinal cord associated with the central nervous system (CNS) are seen in automotive accidents. CNS injuries are generally categorized into severe injuries (AIS 3+). However, it is not clear how the restraint conditions affect the CNS injuries. This paper presents a newly developed three-dimensional (3D) finite element head-neck model in order to investigate the biomechanical responses of the brain-spinal cord complex. The head model consists of the scalp, skull, and a detailed description of the brain including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem with distinct white and gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), sagittal sinus, dura, pia, arachnoid, meninx, falx cerebri, and tentorium. Additionally, the neck model consists of the cervical vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, muscles, ligaments, spinal cord with white and gray matter, cervical pia, and CSF.
Technical Paper

Development of a Human FE Model with 3-D Geometry of Muscles and Lateral Impact Analysis for the Arm with Muscle Activity

To investigate the effect of muscle activity in pre-impact on injury outcome, we developed a human arm finite element model with muscles which consisted of solid elements and truss elements that could be used for simulating muscle stiffness change for the inputted activity and 3-D geometry of each muscle. Two series of experimental tests on muscle stiffness change and arm flexion were conducted for validation of the model. Comparisons between the simulation results and test data indicated the model validity. Lateral impact simulations for a left arm demonstrated that the muscle activity in pre-impact had significant effects on the motion and stress distribution of the arm bones.
Technical Paper

Development of a Human Body Finite Element Model with Multiple Muscles and their Controller for Estimating Occupant Motions and Impact Responses in Frontal Crash Situations

A few reports suggest differences in injury outcomes between cadaver tests and real-world accidents under almost similar conditions. This study hypothesized that muscle activity could primarily cause the differences, and then developed a human body finite element (FE) model with individual muscles. Each muscle was modeled as a hybrid model of bar elements with active properties and solid elements with passive properties. The model without muscle activation was firstly validated against five series of cadaver test data on impact responses in the anterior-posterior direction. The model with muscle activation levels estimated based on electromyography (EMG) data was secondly validated against four series of volunteer test data on bracing effects for stiffness and thickness of an upper arm muscle, and braced driver's responses under a static environment and a brake deceleration.