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Technical Paper

Effects of RME30 on Exhaust Emissions and Combustion in a Diesel Engine

Considering the popularity of biodiesel fuels for diesel vehicles, the impacts of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), which is the most utilized biodiesel fuel in Europe, on tailpipe emissions from a diesel passenger car was investigated. In this study, 30% RME blended diesel fuel (RME30) was used and the comparison of tailpipe emissions between RME30 and a reference diesel fuel was conducted using a test vehicle with the latest engine and aftertreatment system. The results of the investigation reveal that RME30 generates about the same amount of NOx in tailpipe emissions as diesel fuel, and less HC, CO, and PM. These phenomena occurred in spite of attaching catalysts to the test vehicle, and therefore suggesting that the NOx conversion efficiency of the catalysts for RME30 is equal to that for diesel fuel. The injection rate for RME30 was the same as that for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Effects of fuel distillation characteristics and cetane number on premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion were investigated for the purpose of reducing NOx and PM emissions from a direct injection diesel engine. The test engine had a hole type injection nozzle for conventional diesel combustion at high load operation. A low compression ratio and cooled EGR were applied to the test engine in order to reduce the compression temperature for avoiding pre-ignition. The investigation results show that, in the case of ignition control by EGR, a light fuel with lower distillation characteristics had an advantage of reducing smoke at higher loads. This means that high volatility fuel is effective in promoting lean mixture formation of fuel and air during the ignition delay. Moreover, lowering the cetane number was effective in reducing NOx emissions by suppression of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Number and Distillation Characteristics of Paraffinic Diesel Fuels on PM Emission from a DI Diesel Engine

Fischer-Tropsch Diesel (FTD) fuel is expected to be a promising clean diesel fuel in the future because of its characteristics of zero sulfur, zero aromatics and a high cetane number. However, the optimum fuel properties for diesel engines have not been realized. In this study, the effects of cetane number and distillation characteristics on engine-out PM emissions from a conventional direct injection diesel engine were investigated by using paraffinic fuels which were made to simulate FTD fuel. From the results of the vehicle exhaust emissions test and engine dynamometer test, it was found that the narrow distillation characteristics (which eliminates heavy hydrocarbon fraction) could reduce the soluble organic fraction (SOF) in PM emissions, and the excess high cetane number characteristic promoted the formation of insoluble organic fraction (ISOF).
Technical Paper

Effect of Sulfur-free and Aromatics-free Diesel Fuel on Vehicle Exhaust Emissions using Simultaneous PM and NOx Reduction System

A new diesel after-treatment system, Diesel Particulate and NOx Reduction System (DPNR), is being developed for reducing PM and NOx emissions. We examined the effects of sulfur content in lubricants on exhaust NOx emission from DPNR catalyst, and examined the PM reduction ability using sulfur-free and aromatics-free fuel. After vehicle durability testing of 40,000 km without forced regeneration of PM and sulfur poisoning on DPNR catalyst, deterioration of DPNR was lower than using higher sulfur contents in fuel and oil. In addition to decreasing fuel sulfur, decreasing oil sulfur was also effective to maintain high NOx conversion efficiency. Although the catalyst was poisoned by sulfur in the lubricants, the influence of oil sulfur poisoning on the catalyst was lower than fuel sulfur poisoning. On the other hand, engine out PM emissions decreased by 70 % because of aromatics-free fuel. The pressure drop of DPNR did not increase during the 40,000 km vehicle durability test.