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Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-1161
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

V6-SUV Engine Sound Development

2009-05-19
2009-01-2177
This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES): 1st Report: Phenomenological Multi-Zone PDF Model for Predicting the Transient Behavior of Diesel Engine Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-0843
We have developed a novel engine cycle simulation program (UniDES: universal diesel engine simulator) to reproduce the diesel combustion process over a wide range of engine operating parameters, such as the amount of injected fuel, the injection timing, and the EGR ratio. The approach described in this paper employs a zoning model, where the in-cylinder region is divided into up to five zones. We also applied a probability density function (PDF) concept to each zone to consider the effect of spatial non-homogeneities, such as local equivalence ratios and temperature, on the combustion characteristics. We linked this program to the commonly used commercial GT-Power® software (UniDES+GT). As a result, we were able to reproduce transient engine behavior very accurately.
Technical Paper

Trends of Future Powertrain Development and the Evolution of Powertrain Control Systems

2004-10-18
2004-21-0063
High fuel efficiency and low emission technologies, such as Direct Injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines and hybrid powertrains, have been developed to resolve environmental and energy resource issues. The hybrid powertrain system has achieved superior power performance as well as higher system efficiency and is expected to be a core powertrain technology because it is compatible with various power sources including fuel cells. It becomes important to control complicated hybrid systems that consist of not only a powertrain but also vehicle systems such as regenerative braking. Model-based control and calibration enables both control strategy optimization and control system development efficiency improvement.
Journal Article

Tire and Road Input Modeling for Low-Frequency Road Noise Prediction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1690
This paper presents a modeling method for prediction of low-frequency road noise in a steady-state condition where rotating tires are excited by actual road profile undulation input. The proposed finite element (FE) tire model contains not only additional geometric stiffness related to inflation pressure and axle load but also Coriolis force and centrifugal force effects caused by tire rotation for precise road noise simulation. Road inputs act on the nodes of each rib in the contact patch of the stationary tire model and move along them at the driving velocity. The nodes are enforced to displace in frequency domain based on the measured road profile. Tire model accuracy was confirmed by the spindle forces on the rotating chassis drum up to 100Hz where Coriolis force effect should be considered. Full vehicle simulation results showed good agreement with the vibration measurement of front/rear suspension at two driving velocities.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement With High-Energy X-Ray CT-Scan

2003-03-03
2003-01-1033
Digital engineering has been utilized in product development to improve the quality. The actual object was measured and digitized into the three-dimensional (3-D) data, and the requirement of evaluating and analyzing the CAD data has been increased in these activities. So, we developed the technology that measures the actual object and obtains the 3-D model data for general automotive parts. The features of this new system are high-speed and high-accuracy by using high energy X-ray CT technology and 3-D model data technology. 3-D model data can be obtained for about 5 hours in case of the engine block and the error is 0.1mm or less. We also show the examples of the new automotive parts development using this technology.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Study on TTC Distribution when Approaching a Lead Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1452
In order to help avoid or mitigate rear-end collisions a Pre-Collision System (PCS) was developed. The purpose of this study is to clarify the Time-to-Collision (TTC) distribution when approaching a lead vehicle under normal driving condition. To enhance the effectiveness of PCS, warnings and/or automatic brake activation should happen as early as possible, however, if too early there is a high possibility of false warnings or activations, which is not desirable. If the distribution of distance to a lead vehicle under normal driving conditions is quantified, an approach limit can be estimated. In this study, we try to clarify a TTC distribution that is approximated by a log-normal distribution. Then, we investigate the Enhanced Time-to-Collision (ETTC) that is the secondary predictive value of TTC. And, we clarify the log-normal distribution of ETTC is a more stable approximator of normal driving than a log-normal distribution of TTC.
Technical Paper

Spatio-Temporal Frequency Characteristics Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity for Smart Lighting

2016-04-05
2016-01-1420
This study aims at the development of a projection pattern that is capable of shortening the time required by a driver to perceive a pedestrian at night when a vehicle’s high beams are utilized. Our approach is based on the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatiotemporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency varies depending on environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are several applications that utilize the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. For example, the National Television System Committee (NTSC) television format takes into consideration low-sensitivity visual characteristics. In contrast, our approach utilizes high-sensitivity visual characteristics based on the assumption that the higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequencies will correlate more effectively with shorter perception times.
Technical Paper

Significance of Electronics Platforms and the Motivation for JasPar

2006-10-16
2006-21-0020
In recent vehicles, E/E architecture is defined and used as a platform to accommodate various electronics features for better development efficiency, lower cost and higher quality. As electronics features increase and integrated control systems make vehicle electronics more complex, good electronics platforms are vital for today's and future vehicle development. This paper first describes the evolution of vehicle electronics and its recent trend and then addresses the challenges facing vehicle electronics: ✓ More integrated control systems ✓ More software ✓ More networks ✓ Shorter time to market Finally, why JasPar1), Japan Automotive Software Platform and Architecture, was founded and how it is organized will be described including the working group activities on FlexRay implementation.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

2017-06-05
2017-01-1812
In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

2016-04-05
2016-01-0057
The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4081
Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Journal Article

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Unsprung Negative Skyhook Damper Control Using In-Wheel Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1678
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors (IWMs) are capable of independent control of the driving force at each wheel. These vehicles can also control the motion of the sprung mass by driving force distribution using the suspension reaction force generated by IWM drive. However, one disadvantage of IWMs is an increase in unsprung mass. This has the effect of increasing vibrations in the 4 to 8 Hz range, which is reported to be uncomfortable to vehicle occupants, thereby reducing ride comfort. This research aimed to improve ride comfort through driving force control. Skyhook damper control is a typical ride comfort control method. Although this control is generally capable of reducing vibration around the resonance frequency of the sprung mass, it also has the trade-off effect of worsening vibration in the targeted mid-frequency 4 to 8 Hz range. This research aimed to improve mid-frequency vibration by identifying the cause of this adverse effect through the equations of motion.
Technical Paper

IGBT Gate Control Methods to Reduce Electrical Power Losses of Hybrid Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1224
Reducing the loss of the power control unit (PCU) in a hybrid vehicle (HV) is an important part of improving HV fuel efficiency. Furthermore the loss of power devices (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and diodes) used in the PCU must be reduced since this amounts to approximately 20% of the total electrical loss in an HV. One of the issues for reducing loss is the trade-off relationship with reducing voltage surge. To restrict voltage surge, it is necessary to slow down the switching speed of the IGBT. In contrast, the loss reduction requires the high speed switching. One widely known method to improve this trade-off relationship is to increase the gate voltage in two stages. However, accurate and high-speed operation of the IGBT gate control circuit is difficult to accomplish. This research clarifies a better condition of the two-stage control and designed a circuit that improves this trade-off relationship by increasing the speed of feedback control.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Vehicles Lessons Learned and Future Prospects

2006-10-16
2006-21-0027
There exist many environmental and earth resource problems to be solved for the 21st century. Hybridization of both internal combustion powertrains and fuel cell powertrains holds great promise for next generation vehicles. This paper describes the lessons learned during design, development, production and marketing of nearly 700,000 hybrid vehicles to date. We review the evolution of major components with a focus on reducing cost, mass and volume while increasing power and efficiency. We also describe the future prospects for hybrid vehicles.
Journal Article

Hierarchical Accumulative Validation of Executable Control Specifications

2013-04-08
2013-01-0430
The application of Model-Based Development (MBD) techniques for automotive control system and software development have become standard processes due to the potential for reduced development time and improved specification quality. In order to improve development productivity even further, it is imperative to introduce a systematic Verification and Validation (V&V) process to further minimize development time and human resources while ensuring control specification quality when developing large complex systems. Traditional methods for validating control specifications have been limited by control specification scale, structure and complexity as well as computational limitations restricting their application within a systematic model-based V&V process. In order to address these issues, Toyota developed Hierarchical Accumulative Validation (HAV) for systematically validating functionally structured executable control specifications.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lateral Acceleration Feedback Control with Steer-by-Wire System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0996
Steer-by-wire is a system that can independently control steering-wheel torque and vehicle-wheel steering angle. The object of this research was to realize a vehicle that can be driven according to driver's intention in any situation, such as in a crosswind, and rutted road surface. Using a steer-by-wire system, disturbance torque from the vehicle-wheels is not transmitted to the driver, signifying that the steering-wheel angle always indicates driver intention. Also, since unexpected feelings by active steering controls are reduced, feedback controls for the target vehicle behavior are easily realized. This research achieved good characteristics from steering-wheel angle to lateral acceleration by studying response characteristics using a vehicle equipped to measure lateral acceleration feedback.
Journal Article

Experimental Demonstration of Smart Charging and Vehicle-to-Home Technologies for Plugin Electric Vehicles Coordinated with Home Energy Management Systems for Automated Demand Response

2016-04-05
2016-01-0160
In this paper, we consider smart charging and vehicle-to-home (V2H) technologies for plugin electric vehicles coordinated with home energy management systems (HEMS) for automated demand response. In this system, plugin electric vehicles automatically react to demand response events with or without HEMS’s coordination, while vehicles are charged and discharged (i.e., V2H) in appropriate time slots by taking into account demand response events, time-ofuse rate information, and users’ vehicle usage plan. We introduce three approaches on home energy management: centralized energy control, distributed energy control, and coordinated energy control. We implemented smart charging and V2H systems by employing two sets of standardized communication protocols: one using OpenADR 2.0b, SEP 2.0, and SAE standards and the other using OpenADR 2.0b, ECHONET Lite, and ISO/IEC 15118.
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of Smart Charging and Demand Response for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Based on SAE Standards

2015-04-14
2015-01-0301
In this paper, we present an implementation of smart charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles based on off-the-shelf communication protocols for smart grids including SAE J2836/2847/J2931 standards and SEP 2.0. In this system, the charging schedule is optimized so that it supplies sufficient electricity for the next trip and also minimizes the charging cost under given time-of-use rate structures while it follows demand response events requested by a utility. Also, users can control charging schedule and check the current status of charging through application software of tablet computers. To validate the effectiveness of the developed smart charging system, we conducted experimental demonstration in which a total of 10 customers of Duke Energy regularly used our developed system for approximately one year with simulated time-of-use rate structures and demand response events.
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