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Technical Paper

Vibration Reduction Applying Skew Phenomena of Needle Roller Bearings in Brake Actuators

2006-04-03
2006-01-0881
Generally, automobiles have many performance requirements for comfort, of which noise, vibration and harshness are very important. Toyota Motor Corporation equipped several 2003 models with the second-generation Electronically Controlled Brake system (ECB2). These ECB2 actuator units adopted a new structure that reduced pumping noise by controlling the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings. Normally, needle roller bearings are advantageous over other bearings in cases where a large force is loaded on bearings, because the contact areas can be made larger. However, a thrust force arises from skew phenomena because of minute clearances among the component parts of needle roller bearings. As a result, axial vibration of the bearing shaft sometimes occurs due to the thrust force. This paper explains how the thrust force generated from the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings occasionally affects the pumping vibration level of equipped machinery such as the brake actuator unit.
Journal Article

Tire and Road Input Modeling for Low-Frequency Road Noise Prediction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1690
This paper presents a modeling method for prediction of low-frequency road noise in a steady-state condition where rotating tires are excited by actual road profile undulation input. The proposed finite element (FE) tire model contains not only additional geometric stiffness related to inflation pressure and axle load but also Coriolis force and centrifugal force effects caused by tire rotation for precise road noise simulation. Road inputs act on the nodes of each rib in the contact patch of the stationary tire model and move along them at the driving velocity. The nodes are enforced to displace in frequency domain based on the measured road profile. Tire model accuracy was confirmed by the spindle forces on the rotating chassis drum up to 100Hz where Coriolis force effect should be considered. Full vehicle simulation results showed good agreement with the vibration measurement of front/rear suspension at two driving velocities.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of Traction Contact Area Using a Thin-film Temperature Sensor

2013-04-08
2013-01-0368
The purpose of this paper is to construct the thermal analysis model by measuring and estimating the temperature at the traction contact area. For measurement of temperature, we have used a thin-film temperature sensor. For estimation of temperature, we have composed the thermal analysis model. The thin-film temperature sensor was formed on the contact surface using a spattering device. The sensor is constituted of three layers (sensor layer, insulation layer and intermediate layer). Dimensions of the sensor were sufficiently smaller than the traction contact area. The sensor featured high specific pressure capacity and high speed responsiveness. The thermal analysis model was mainly composed of three equations: Carslaw & Jaeger equation, Rashid & Seireg equation and heat transfer equation of shear heating in oil film. The heat transfer equation involved two models (local shear heating model at middle plane, homogeneous shear heating model).
Technical Paper

The Motor Control Technologies for High-Power Hybrid System

2005-04-11
2005-01-0271
The Rx400h, which was put on the market in 2005, realized overwhelming power performance with the adoption of a high-voltage system, high-power output motor, and 3-motor type 4WD. Toyota has been working on a solution to increase the output power of the motor, i.e., the development of system stabilization technology. This paper introduces high-speed power balance control, which keeps the balance of power constant regardless of rapid changes in the number of motor rotations resulting from slipping tires or other factors, along with sensor error compensation control, which suppresses cyclic power fluctuation resulting from errors in the position sensor of the motor.
Technical Paper

Smart Algorithm for a Tire Pneumatic Pressure Monitor Embedded in ABS Program

1998-02-23
980237
This paper describes methods to attain a low cost tire pneumatic pressure monitor. We already established two kinds of algorithms for indirect detection of under-inflated tires without requiring any air pressure sensors. One method is to use a disturbance observer and the least mean square method. The other method is to compare the loaded radii of the tires. We have developed an algorithm that reduces the number of calculations needed, while maintaining a relatively small program size, and realized a tire pneumatic pressure monitor that does not require any hardware cost, by incorporating it into the program for the antilock brake system (ABS).
Journal Article

Ride Comfort Analysis Considering Suspension Friction with Series Rigidity

2016-04-05
2016-01-1679
A dynamics model considering series rigidity was constructed to examine suspension friction, which has a major effect on ride comfort on paved roads. The friction characteristics of the bushings, ball joints, and shock absorbers are expressed with series elastic elements such as arm rigidity and the spring constant of the oil seals. It was confirmed that the calculated values for the overall spring constant and damping coefficient of the suspension virtually matched values measured in a 4-post shaker test. In addition, the results of analysis using this dynamics model confirmed that the degree of friction affects both the damping coefficient and the spring constant of the suspension, especially when the series rigidity is high. Also highly rigid friction has an adverse effect on sprung motion in frequency ranges above 15 Hz. After suspension enhancements were adopted based on these findings, 4-post shaker tests confirmed that sprung motion above 2 Hz improved..
Technical Paper

Metallic Powder Coating for Aluminum Wheels

2004-03-08
2004-01-1671
From the viewpoint of measures for environmental issues, the amount of solvents in paint for aluminum wheels needs to be minimized. Environmentally friendly powder coatings have been used widely for primer coating and clear coating, but there is no precedent for its use for base coating. This time, we optimized the condition of surface treatment of pigment and hardening behavior of constituent resin in the melting process and succeeded in developing a metallic powder coating for aluminum wheels that fulfills the appearance and the quality requirements of aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Indoor Pass-by Noise Evaluation System Capable of Reproducing ISO Actual Road Surface Tire Noise

2016-04-05
2016-01-0479
Generally, pass-by noise levels measured outdoors vary according to the influence of weather conditions, background noise and the driver’s skill. Manufactures, therefore, are trying to reproduce proving ground driving conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The tire noise that occurs on actual road surfaces, however, is difficult to reproduce in indoor tests. In 2016, new pass-by noise regulations (UN R51-03) will take effect in Europe, Japan and other countries. Furthermore, stricter regulations (2dB) will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration runs required under current regulations, UN R51-03 will require constant speed runs. Therefore, an efficient measurement methods are necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues, an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise that occurs on road surfaces has been developed.
Journal Article

Improvement of Temperature Prediction Method for Traction Contact

2016-04-05
2016-01-1110
This report proposes a method of improving the temperature prediction model for traction drive contact portion in order to improve prediction accuracy of the maximum traction coefficient, and then describes verification of this method. In our previous report, a method of estimating the maximum traction coefficient by expressing conditions inside the contact ellipse using a simple combination of viscosity and plasticity was proposed. For the rise in oil film temperature, a calculation model is used that considers maximum temperature to be the typical value. Furthermore, a thin film temperature sensor technology was developed to directly measure the temperature of traction contact of a four-roller experimental apparatus and a variator in an actual transmission, and its validity was confirmed.
Journal Article

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Unsprung Negative Skyhook Damper Control Using In-Wheel Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1678
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors (IWMs) are capable of independent control of the driving force at each wheel. These vehicles can also control the motion of the sprung mass by driving force distribution using the suspension reaction force generated by IWM drive. However, one disadvantage of IWMs is an increase in unsprung mass. This has the effect of increasing vibrations in the 4 to 8 Hz range, which is reported to be uncomfortable to vehicle occupants, thereby reducing ride comfort. This research aimed to improve ride comfort through driving force control. Skyhook damper control is a typical ride comfort control method. Although this control is generally capable of reducing vibration around the resonance frequency of the sprung mass, it also has the trade-off effect of worsening vibration in the targeted mid-frequency 4 to 8 Hz range. This research aimed to improve mid-frequency vibration by identifying the cause of this adverse effect through the equations of motion.
Journal Article

High Efficiency Electromagnetic Torque Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1162
A new concept of an electromagnetic torque converter for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The electromagnetic torque converter, which is an electric system comprised of a set of double rotors and a stator, works as a high-efficiency transmission in the driving conditions of low gear ratio including a vehicle moving-off and as a starting device for an internal combustion engine. Moreover, it can be used for an electric vehicle driving as well as for a regenerative braking. In this concept, a high-efficiency drivetrain system for hybrid electric vehicles is constructed by replacing a fluid-type torque converter with the electromagnetic torque converter in the automatic transmission of a conventional vehicle. In this paper, we present the newly developed electromagnetic torque converter with a compact structure that enables mounting on a vehicle, and we evaluate its transmission efficiency by experiment.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lateral Acceleration Feedback Control with Steer-by-Wire System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0996
Steer-by-wire is a system that can independently control steering-wheel torque and vehicle-wheel steering angle. The object of this research was to realize a vehicle that can be driven according to driver's intention in any situation, such as in a crosswind, and rutted road surface. Using a steer-by-wire system, disturbance torque from the vehicle-wheels is not transmitted to the driver, signifying that the steering-wheel angle always indicates driver intention. Also, since unexpected feelings by active steering controls are reduced, feedback controls for the target vehicle behavior are easily realized. This research achieved good characteristics from steering-wheel angle to lateral acceleration by studying response characteristics using a vehicle equipped to measure lateral acceleration feedback.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

2007-05-15
2007-01-2345
It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Journal Article

Electronic Power Steering Compensating Control for Influence of Vehicle Dynamics on Steering Torque

2009-04-20
2009-01-0049
The frequency response of steering effort torque changes according to the influence of vehicle dynamics. To help enhance feel, a new electronic power steering (EPS) control has been constructed. As the control can be achieved by the addition of a viscosity control with a filter to existing EPS systems, its structure is simple and easily installed. Actual vehicle tests have been performed to verify that the control is capable of enhancing convergence without adversely affecting response during steering.
Technical Paper

Efficient Direct Yaw Moment Control during Acceleration and Deceleration while Turning (First Report)

2016-04-05
2016-01-1674
The research described in this paper aimed to study the cornering resistance and dissipation power on the tire contact patch, and to develop an efficient direct yaw moment control (DYC) during acceleration and deceleration while turning. A previously reported method [1], which formulates the cornering resistance in steady-state cornering, was extended to so-called quasi steady-state cornering that includes acceleration and deceleration while turning. Simulations revealed that the direct yaw moment reduces the dissipation power due to the load shift between the front and rear wheels. In addition, the optimum direct yaw moment cancels out the understeer augmented by acceleration. In contrast, anti-direct yaw moment optimizes the dissipation power during decelerating to maximize kinetic energy recovery. The optimization method proved that the optimum direct yaw moment can be achieved by equalizing the slip vectors of all the wheels.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronically Controlled Brake System for Fuel-efficient Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1664
To solve various environmental problems, fuel-efficient vehicles that reduce CO2 emissions as well as exhaust gas emissions have been developed. In such vehicles, a regenerative brake is used to further reduce fuel consumption. Because the market size for such vehicles is expanding, a brake system is required that can be used in a wide range of vehicles extending from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to electric vehicles (EVs). In addition, issues such as deceleration fluctuation and brake pedal fluctuation arise because the regenerative brake force is dependent on the vehicle speed. This paper presents a brake system configuration and its element technologies that can replace existing brake systems in different vehicles ranging from ICEVs to EVs. The proposed system can realize a regenerative cooperative brake not only by replacing the brake booster unit but also without replacing the modulator.
Journal Article

Development of a Test Method to Evaluate both Stiffness and Interaction of Compatibility Performance

2008-04-14
2008-01-0816
Compatibility is important in order to secure mutual protection in collisions between large and small vehicles. To enhance compatibility, good structural interaction and stiffness matching are important elements. This paper proposes a test method that uses a moving deformable barrier (MDB) to evaluate compatibility performance that includes not only structural interaction but also stiffness matching. This new deformable barrier is aimed at the simulation of offset Vehicle-to-Vehicle collisions with compact vehicles. This simulation is based on real world crash research, and takes into account three separate load interactions between the impacting vehicles. These areas of interaction include the impacting vehicle's power unit to the opposing vehicle's wheel, the impacting vehicle's lower rail to the opposing vehicle's lower rail, and the impacting vehicle's wheel to the opposing vehicle's power unit.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Dynamics Management System for Hybrid Vehicles - ECB System for Improved Environmental and Vehicle Dynamic Performance -

2002-05-07
2002-01-1586
In anticipation of the increased needs to further reduce exhaust gas emissions and improve fuel consumption, a new brake-by-wire system called an “Electronically Controlled Brake” system (hereafter referred to as “ECB”) has been developed. With this brake system, which is able to smoothly control the hydraulic pressure that is applied to each of the four wheel cylinders on an individual basis, functional enhancements can be added by appropriately modifying its software. This paper discusses the necessity of the ECB, the system configuration, and the results of its application on hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of New Sound Insulator Damping Coat

2003-03-03
2003-01-0232
Presently, asphalt sheets are utilized as a sound insulator for floor panels. However, there is a rising demand for the development of a totally new sound insulator twofold: to meet weight reductions and to improve the manufacturing process. In order to meet these criteria, unique sprayable material, which exhibits highly stable insulation performance over a broad temperature range, was developed. Liquid sound dampers are the next-generation in sound insulation material, which not only exhibits high sound insulation performance for an insulator, but also raises expectations for radical weight reductions due to its dynamic application capabilities.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid - Size Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0429
The new P710 hybrid transaxle for a mid-size 2.5-liter class vehicle was developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy to achieve a range of desired performance objects. A smaller and lighter transaxle with low mechanical loss was realized by incorporating a new gear train structure and a downsized motor. The noise of the P710 transaxle was also reduced by adopting a new damper structure.
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