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Technical Paper

Vibration Reduction Applying Skew Phenomena of Needle Roller Bearings in Brake Actuators

Generally, automobiles have many performance requirements for comfort, of which noise, vibration and harshness are very important. Toyota Motor Corporation equipped several 2003 models with the second-generation Electronically Controlled Brake system (ECB2). These ECB2 actuator units adopted a new structure that reduced pumping noise by controlling the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings. Normally, needle roller bearings are advantageous over other bearings in cases where a large force is loaded on bearings, because the contact areas can be made larger. However, a thrust force arises from skew phenomena because of minute clearances among the component parts of needle roller bearings. As a result, axial vibration of the bearing shaft sometimes occurs due to the thrust force. This paper explains how the thrust force generated from the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings occasionally affects the pumping vibration level of equipped machinery such as the brake actuator unit.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

V6-SUV Engine Sound Development

This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Technical Paper

Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

This paper proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude. The rubber suspension bushing model was then constructed by transforming this equation. Two verifications were carried out to confirm that the model is capable of reproducing measured bushing characteristics.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Longitudinal Vehicle Vibration Using In-Wheel Motors

This study analyzed the longitudinal vibration of a vehicle body and unsprung mass. Calculations and tests verified that longitudinal vibration can be reduced using in-wheel motors, which generate torque very quickly. Despite increasing demand for measures to enhance ride comfort considering longitudinal vibration, this type of vibration cannot be absorbed or controlled using a conventional suspension. This paper describes the reduction of vehicle longitudinal vibration that cannot be controlled by conventional actuators.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in the Development of Hybrid Luxury Sedan with Series/Parallel Hybrid System

For a luxury sedan, quietness is a major selling point, and a hybrid luxury sedan is expected to be especially quiet. Therefore, in the development of the hybrid luxury sedan, every possible effort is needed to reduce the hybrid system noise in order to ensure a level of quietness far superior to that of an ordinary gasoline-powered vehicle. In addition, the noise and vibration phenomena that are particular to vehicles with longitudinal power trains require special reduction technologies. This paper first describes the superior quietness of hybrid luxury vehicles in comparison with ordinary gasoline-powered vehicles. This paper then addresses the development issues of vibration during engine starting, engine booming noise, and motor noise, explaining the mechanisms by which they are generated and the technologies employed to reduce them.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in New Generation Hybrid Vehicle Development

The new gasoline hybrid car, “the Prius”, has achieved both two-liter class power performance and world top-class gas mileage with the new Toyota Hybrid System “THS II”. Compared with the previous THS, the electric motor drive power of the THS II has been boosted by 50% and the weight of this system has been reduced by 20%. This paper describes the NV problems caused by the improvements to the hybrid system, and the countermeasures for them. It also describes the technologies for reduction of engine start vibration. Finally an evaluation method and countermeasures against interior engine noise are described.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in Hybrid Vehicle Development

The world's first mass production gasoline hybrid passenger car, the “Prius”, was introduced into the Japanese market in 1997. By the time it was introduced into the American and European markets in Mid-2000, its fuel consumption and exhaust emissions had been further improved while achieving superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with 1.5-liter engines even in these competitive markets. This paper describes NV reduction technology for problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise and vibration at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also compares the overall NV performance of the hybrid vehicle with conventional gasoline engine vehicles.
Technical Paper

New Simulation Method Using Experimental Modal Analysis for Prediction of Body Deformation during Operation

A method for predicting body deformation during operation, which cannot be measured by conventional methods, has been developed. The method creates a body model based on the characteristics extracted by modal analysis of the results of a vibration testing of an actual vehicle. The model is combined with a suspension model, using multibody dynamics software, and body deformation calculations are performed. In this paper, the influence of body deformation on vehicle controllability and stability is studied and the usefulness of the method is verified.
Journal Article

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Unsprung Negative Skyhook Damper Control Using In-Wheel Motors

Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors (IWMs) are capable of independent control of the driving force at each wheel. These vehicles can also control the motion of the sprung mass by driving force distribution using the suspension reaction force generated by IWM drive. However, one disadvantage of IWMs is an increase in unsprung mass. This has the effect of increasing vibrations in the 4 to 8 Hz range, which is reported to be uncomfortable to vehicle occupants, thereby reducing ride comfort. This research aimed to improve ride comfort through driving force control. Skyhook damper control is a typical ride comfort control method. Although this control is generally capable of reducing vibration around the resonance frequency of the sprung mass, it also has the trade-off effect of worsening vibration in the targeted mid-frequency 4 to 8 Hz range. This research aimed to improve mid-frequency vibration by identifying the cause of this adverse effect through the equations of motion.
Journal Article

FEM System Development for Dynamic Response Analysis of Acoustic Trim

The multilayer vehicle trim is well known for its effective influence upon noise and vibration characteristics not only in the high-frequency range but also in the low and mid-frequency ranges. FEM technologies which represent the accurate stiffness, mass and damping of trim parts such as the dash silencer and the floor carpet are essential in order to extend current body FEM capability to the road noise and the engine noise issues generated in the mid-frequency range. Conventional modeling methodologies such as local impedance and/or spring-mass modeling that express absorption and insulation properties of acoustic trim contain limitations in the mid-frequency range. There are few reliable FEM technologies to create practical vehicle models that represent the precise characteristics of the trim. In this paper, poroelastic modeling of acoustic multilayer trim was established by employing Biot theory.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight Soundproof Cover Using the Biot Theory (Vibration Propagation in Elastic Porous Materials), and an Example Application to a Transmission

To reduce cabin noise and vehicle weight (for lower fuel consumption), a lightweight soundproofing cover was developed as a countermeasure to sources of noise, using the Biot theory (vibration propagation theory in poroelastic materials). This report also presents the results of its application to a metal belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT) used in Toyota Motor Corporation’s 2.0L vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Reduction Method for Whirl Noise on Turbocharger

The whirl noise on turbochargers is generated by the self-induced vibration of the oil film in the bearing system. The noise is characterized by its frequency behavior that doesn't increase proportionately to the turbo shaft speed. It tends to be felt annoying. In this paper, to improve the whirl vibration, a statistical analysis approach was applied to the bearing specifications. The results from experiments showed that the bearing clearances played an important role in the reduction of the whirl vibration. To further investigate into this phenomenon, the shaft oscillation behavior was measured. And a vibration simulation program for the turbocharger bearing system was also developed.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vibration Characteristics on Final Gear Unit

Whinning gear noise(final gear noise), one of the causes for automobile interior noise is due to the exciting force of final gear kit and as a general countermeasure for this problem, a reduction of resonance level in transfer system and better meshing of gears have been utilized. However,vibration characteristics of final gear unit have not been considered much in this case. Authors have executed impacting test on final gear unit and confirmed its vibration characteristics. Based on this fact,vibration model consisting of bearings and gears spring system was constructed to evaluate vibration characteristics of final gear unit along with the results obtained from final gear unit of front engine,rear drive passenger car.
Technical Paper

A Study of Triple Skyhook Control for Semi-Active Suspension System

The research described in this paper focused on improving occupant ride comfort and road holding by suppressing sprung and unsprung vibration using a semi-active suspension system. It has been reported that occupants tend to perceive vertical vibrations in a frequency range between 4 and 8 Hz as uncomfortable (described below as the “mid-frequency range”). Previous research into semi-active suspension system has focused on reducing vibration in this mid-frequency range, as well as close to the sprung resonance frequency of between 1 and 2 Hz. Skyhook damper (SH) control is a typical ride comfort control used to damp vibration close to the sprung resonance frequency. However, since SH control is not capable of damping vibration in the mid-frequency range, the shock absorbers are configured with a lower damping factor. This helps to achieve a good balance between reducing vibration close to the sprung mass resonance and in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

A Study of Reduction for Brake Squeal in Disc In-Plane Mode

Brake squeal is a phenomenon of self-induced vibration of the brake components during braking. There are many kinds of brake squeal cases whose mechanisms require acting on a various number of potential root causes. Brake squeal phenomena can be generally separated into 2 main mode types related to the direction of disc vibration involved: in-plane mode and out-of-plane mode. For out-of-plane mode, a number of existing countermeasures can be potentially applied after characterization of the squeal occurrence condition by direct experiment or simulation analysis[1,2,3,4]. However, as there are many possible mechanisms and root causes for the in-plane modes[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13], it is generally necessary to perform a detailed analysis of the vibration mechanism before implementing a countermeasure.