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Technical Paper

Theory of Collision Avoidance Capability in Automated Driving Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0044
This paper proposes a theory to analyze the collision avoidance capability of automated driving technologies. The theory gives answers to a fundamental question whether automated vehicles fall into extreme conditions at all rather than another question how a vehicle reacts under extreme conditions (is it as safe as driver?). The theory clarifies the following matters: There are two types of hazards to cause collisions, cognitive hazards and behavioral hazards. Cognitive hazards are handled by controlling the upper limit speed of the automated vehicle including when stopped. There are two methods for handling behavioral hazards, preparation and response. The response known well is the coping method activated when the hazard is detected in the dynamic (operational) level. The preparation is the coping method operating at all time in the semantic (tactical) level.
Journal Article

Technical Development of Electro Magnetic Compatibility for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle / Electric Vehicle Using Wireless Power Transfer System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1161
In 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology successfully completed a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) experiment. Ever since, interest in WPT has been growing. At Toyota, we have been developing the underlying technology of a WPT system. Simultaneously we have been working with regulatory committees to create a standard for WPT. In particular, there are concerns that WPT’s radiated emissions could cause harm to humans and the neighboring electronic equipment. There are many challenges that need to be overcome, but a key concern is understanding WPT’s electromagnetic compatibility (EMI: Electro-Magnetic Interference and EMF: Electro-Magnetic Field). In this paper, we show the technical issues, the evaluation method, and the development status of EMI and EMF on PHVs/EVs when using WPT. For Electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance, we investigated both an open area test site and an electromagnetic anechoic chamber as evaluation environments.
Journal Article

Ride Comfort Analysis Considering Suspension Friction with Series Rigidity

2016-04-05
2016-01-1679
A dynamics model considering series rigidity was constructed to examine suspension friction, which has a major effect on ride comfort on paved roads. The friction characteristics of the bushings, ball joints, and shock absorbers are expressed with series elastic elements such as arm rigidity and the spring constant of the oil seals. It was confirmed that the calculated values for the overall spring constant and damping coefficient of the suspension virtually matched values measured in a 4-post shaker test. In addition, the results of analysis using this dynamics model confirmed that the degree of friction affects both the damping coefficient and the spring constant of the suspension, especially when the series rigidity is high. Also highly rigid friction has an adverse effect on sprung motion in frequency ranges above 15 Hz. After suspension enhancements were adopted based on these findings, 4-post shaker tests confirmed that sprung motion above 2 Hz improved..
Technical Paper

Research of the Relationship of Pedestrian Injury to Collision Speed, Car-type, Impact Location and Pedestrian Sizes using Human FE model (THUMS Version 4)

2012-10-29
2012-22-0007
Injuries in car to pedestrian collisions are affected by various factors such as the vehicle body type, pedestrian body size and impact location as well as the collision speed. This study aimed to investigate the influence of such factors taking a Finite Element (FE) approach. A total of 72 collision cases were simulated using three different vehicle FE models (Sedan, SUV, Mini-Van), three different pedestrian FE models (AM50, AF05, AM95), assuming two different impact locations (center and the corner of the bumper) and at four different collision speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 km/h). The impact kinematics and the responses of the pedestrian model were validated against those in the literature prior to the simulations. The relationship between the collision speed and the predicted occurrence of head and chest injuries was examined for each case, analyzing the impact kinematics of the pedestrian against the vehicle body and resultant loading to the head and the chest.
Technical Paper

Occupant Kinematics and Estimated Effectiveness of Side Airbags in Pole Side Impacts Using a Human FE Model with Internal Organs

2008-11-03
2008-22-0015
When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

2016-11-07
2016-22-0005
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Anteroposterior Head-Neck Responses during Severe Frontal Impacts Using a Brain-Spinal Cord Complex FE Model

2006-11-06
2006-22-0019
Injuries of the human brain and spinal cord associated with the central nervous system (CNS) are seen in automotive accidents. CNS injuries are generally categorized into severe injuries (AIS 3+). However, it is not clear how the restraint conditions affect the CNS injuries. This paper presents a newly developed three-dimensional (3D) finite element head-neck model in order to investigate the biomechanical responses of the brain-spinal cord complex. The head model consists of the scalp, skull, and a detailed description of the brain including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem with distinct white and gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), sagittal sinus, dura, pia, arachnoid, meninx, falx cerebri, and tentorium. Additionally, the neck model consists of the cervical vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, muscles, ligaments, spinal cord with white and gray matter, cervical pia, and CSF.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre-impact Pedestrian Posture on Lower Extremity Kinematics in Vehicle Collisions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1507
Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen

2006-11-06
2006-22-0002
This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Drowsy Driving Prediction based on Eye Opening Time

2017-03-28
2017-01-1398
Since drowsy driving is a major cause of serious traffic accidents, there is a growing requirement for drowsiness prevention technologies. This study proposes a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. One issue of using eye opening time is predicting strong drowsiness before the driver actually feels sleepy. Because overlooking potential hazards is one of the causes of traffic accidents and is closely related to driver cognition and drowsiness, this study focuses on eye opening movements during driving. First, this report describes hypotheses concerning drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. It is assumed that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates driver drowsiness and the following two transitions are considered: increasing and decreasing SDEOP. To confirm the hypotheses, the relationship between drowsiness and SDEOP was investigated.
Journal Article

Efficiency Improvement of Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Bus by Silicon Carbide Diodes

2016-04-05
2016-01-1234
The adoption of silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors is regarded as a promising means of improving the fuel efficiency of all types of electrically powered vehicles, including plug-in, electric, fuel cell, and hybrid vehicles (PHVs, EVs, FCVs, and HVs). For this reason, adoption in a wide variety of vehicles is currently being studied, including in the fuel cell (FC) boost converter of an FC bus. The FC boost converter controls the output voltage of the FC up to 650 V. In this research, SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SiC-SBDs) were adopted in the upper arm of an FC boost converter. Since the forward voltage (Vf) of SiC-SBDs is smaller than conventional Si-PiN diodes (Si-PiNDs), the conduction loss of SiC-SBDs is correspondingly smaller. Recovery loss can also be reduced by at least 90% compared to Si-PiNDs since the recovery current of SiC-SBDs is substantially smaller.
Technical Paper

Development of a Human FE Model with 3-D Geometry of Muscles and Lateral Impact Analysis for the Arm with Muscle Activity

2009-06-09
2009-01-2266
To investigate the effect of muscle activity in pre-impact on injury outcome, we developed a human arm finite element model with muscles which consisted of solid elements and truss elements that could be used for simulating muscle stiffness change for the inputted activity and 3-D geometry of each muscle. Two series of experimental tests on muscle stiffness change and arm flexion were conducted for validation of the model. Comparisons between the simulation results and test data indicated the model validity. Lateral impact simulations for a left arm demonstrated that the muscle activity in pre-impact had significant effects on the motion and stress distribution of the arm bones.
Technical Paper

Development of a Human Body Finite Element Model with Multiple Muscles and their Controller for Estimating Occupant Motions and Impact Responses in Frontal Crash Situations

2012-10-29
2012-22-0006
A few reports suggest differences in injury outcomes between cadaver tests and real-world accidents under almost similar conditions. This study hypothesized that muscle activity could primarily cause the differences, and then developed a human body finite element (FE) model with individual muscles. Each muscle was modeled as a hybrid model of bar elements with active properties and solid elements with passive properties. The model without muscle activation was firstly validated against five series of cadaver test data on impact responses in the anterior-posterior direction. The model with muscle activation levels estimated based on electromyography (EMG) data was secondly validated against four series of volunteer test data on bracing effects for stiffness and thickness of an upper arm muscle, and braced driver's responses under a static environment and a brake deceleration.
Technical Paper

Development of TOYOTA Reflex Burn (TRB) System in DI Diesel

1990-02-01
900658
In order to optimize air-fuel mixture formation in a small DI diesel engine, studies were conducted into the effects of combustion chamber shape and fuel spray impingement. Based on the findings of these studies, the shape of the combustion chamber was modified to induce complex air motion with high turbulence and fuel injection was carefully controlled to achieve optimum impingement intensity. As a result, the mixture formation process was greatly improved with a consequent gain in terms of engine performance. To clarify the reasons for this improvement in combustion, a three-dimensional calculation of the in-cylinder air motion was made. The behaviour of the spray and flame was observed using an endoscope. The new combustion system, named TOYOTA Reflex Burn system (TRB) thus developed has been adopted in production engines since August 1988.
Technical Paper

Development of Pre-Crash Intelligent Head Restraint

2008-04-14
2008-01-0513
If a crash prediction system (Rear pre-crash safety) determines that a rear crash is unavoidable, this product reduces whiplash injury by reducing shock to the neck by quickly moving the front part of a head restraint forward thus shortening the distance between the head and the head restraint. Pre-crash intelligent head restraint systems were developed for safe vehicle. In this paper, the method to detect collision risk and how to protect passenger's heads was introduced. Also sensor idea and operating mechanism were explained.
Journal Article

Development of Injury Probability Functions for the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

2012-04-16
2012-01-0277
The goal of this study was to develop injury probability functions for the leg bending moment and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) elongation of the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) based on human response data available from the literature. Data for the leg bending moment at fracture in dynamic 3-point bending were geometrically scaled to an average male using the standard lengths obtained from the anthropometric study, based on which the dimensions of the Flex-PLI were determined. Both male and female data were included since there was no statistically significant difference in bone material property. Since the data included both right censored and uncensored data, the Weibull Survival Model was used to develop a human leg fracture probability function.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Stability and its Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0860
The effects of biodiesel oxidation stability on diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) behavior were investigated using newly developed test rig and methodology. On the test rig, biodiesel blend fuels were circulated through a fuel tank and a common rail injection system. Fuel injected from typical diesel injectors was returned into the fuel tank to enhance the speed of fuel degradation. The results showed that injector deposits could be reproduced on a test rig. It was observed that injector body temperature increase accelerates the degradation of fuel and therefore gives earlier FIE failure. Fuel renewal could partially restore the injection quantity after complete failure at low injection pressure, thus showing a potential cleaning effect on injector deposits when refueling a car.
Technical Paper

Bench Testing Validation of Wireless Power Transfer for electric and hybrid vehicles up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presently being applied to consumer electronics in the low-power range and is planned to be commercialized in the high-power range for plug-in and electric vehicles in the near future. There are, however, technology challenges remaining before widespread implementation of high-power WPT will occur. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 adopts a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies for SAE J2954.
Technical Paper

Ankle Skeletal Injury Predictions Using Anisotropic Inelastic Constitutive Model of Cortical Bone Taking into Account Damage Evolution

2005-11-09
2005-22-0007
The most severe ankle skeletal injury called pilon fractures can cause long term disability and impairment. Based on previous experimental studies, the pilon fractures are regarded as caused by a high-energy compressive force in the ankle joint and affected by a muscular tension force generated by emergency braking. However, quantitative injury criteria for the pilon fractures are still unknown. More accurate prediction of bone fractures in the distal tibia using a FE model of human lower leg can help us know the quantitative injury criteria. Therefore we newly proposed an anisotropic inelastic constitutive model of cortical bone including damage evolution and then implemented it to a FE code, LS-DYNA. The proposed model successfully reproduced most of anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and asymmetry of tension and compression on material and failure properties of human femoral cortical bone.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2515
The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
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