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Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1130
The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Technical Paper

Study of Plastic Plating Using Highly Concentrated Ozonized Water Pretreatment

2005-04-11
2005-01-0618
In order to achieve good adhesive properties, typical decorative plastic plating technology uses a chromic acid process that creates an anchor effect. Due to environmental concerns with hexavalent chromium, there is a need to find alternative processes. Pretreatment using highly concentrated ozonized water was investigated as a novel approach to achieving this goal. In the conventional chromic acid process, strong adhesion between plating membranes is achieved by roughing the ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) resin surface by approximately 1 um. On the other hand, the highly concentrated ozonized water process achieves good adhesion with a smooth resin by changing the resin from ABS to ASA (acrylate-styrene-acrylonitrile). It was discovered that the difference in this strength of adhesion was the difference in resin surface strength (existence of deterioration or otherwise).
Journal Article

Study of Alternative Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst for Pt Based on Transition Metal Chalcogenides

2008-04-14
2008-01-1265
The development of an alternative oxygen reduction electrocatalyst to platinum based electrocatalysts is critical for practical use of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Transition metal sulfide chalcogenides have recently been reported as a possible candidate for Pt replacement. Our work focused on chalcogenides composed of ruthenium, molybdenum, and sulfur (RuMoS). We elucidate the factors affecting electrocatalytic activity of carbon supported RuXMoY SZ catalyst. This was demonstrated through a correlation of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the catalysts with structural changes resulting from designed changes in sulfur composition in the catalysts.
Technical Paper

Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

2018-04-03
2018-01-0693
This paper proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude. The rubber suspension bushing model was then constructed by transforming this equation. Two verifications were carried out to confirm that the model is capable of reproducing measured bushing characteristics.
Technical Paper

Post PVC Sound Insulating Underbody coating

2002-03-04
2002-01-0293
Underbody coating is used to prevent chipping damage of the automobile underbody and wheel well. Multi-functional material that gives sound insulating properties is called sound insulating underbody coating. This paper describes the development of underbody coating material with powdered acrylic composition as an alternative to polyvinyl chloride resin. The new material also has better foaming properties. It is possible to ensure excellent sound insulating performance with thin film. This multi-functional underbody coating is the first application in the world with weight reduction and cost saving, and in a more environmentally acceptable manner.
Technical Paper

Metallic Powder Coating for Aluminum Wheels

2004-03-08
2004-01-1671
From the viewpoint of measures for environmental issues, the amount of solvents in paint for aluminum wheels needs to be minimized. Environmentally friendly powder coatings have been used widely for primer coating and clear coating, but there is no precedent for its use for base coating. This time, we optimized the condition of surface treatment of pigment and hardening behavior of constituent resin in the melting process and succeeded in developing a metallic powder coating for aluminum wheels that fulfills the appearance and the quality requirements of aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Material Consolidation for Automotive Interior and Exterior Parts through Development of a High Performance Material

1998-09-29
982410
Through a polymer design and precise morphology control, The Super Olefin Polymer, TSOP-1 and TSOP-5 were developed for the material consolidation of interior and exterior parts, respectively. Due to a good balance of TSOP performance, several conventional materials were consolidated into one material for each application. Accordingly, considerable amounts of weight reduction and cost savings have been obtained. In addition to the excellent recyclability of TSOP, the coated bumpers collected from the market were re-utilized through paint decomposition technology. The first dashboard construction, molded partially with foam-padded skin, was also realized. The current amount of TSOP used in a vehicle is about 30% of the total amount of plastic materials. Through the usage of TSOP, 70% of the material consolidation has been achieved.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bio-plastics for Automotive Parts

2003-10-27
2003-01-2756
We studied the application of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, major improvement is required for thermal and impact performance. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase CO2 emissions, we attempt to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both thermal and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which lead to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bio-plastics for Automotive Parts

2004-03-08
2004-01-0730
We studied the use of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, improvement in heat and impact performance is required. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase in CO2 emissions, we attempted to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both heat and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which leads to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Bioplastics

2003-03-03
2003-01-1124
We studied the adoption of plastics derived from plants (bioplastics) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for automotive parts in order to contribute to suppressing the increase in CO, emissions. For this application. major improvements of heat and impact resistance are needed. As a method to improve heat resistance, we developed PLA combined with clay of high heat resistance. As a result. we succeeded in synthesizing a PLA-clay nanocomposite using 18(OH)2-Mont. In-mold crystallization of PLA-clay nanocomposite lead to the great suppression of storage modulus decrease at high temperature. which in turn improved the heat resistance of PLA.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Adhesion Properties between Epoxy Resin and Primer and between Primer and Ni Plating in Hybrid Vehicle Power Semiconductor Module under High Temperature Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0500
In this report, adhesion mechanism between epoxy resin and primer and between primer and Ni platting in Hybrid vehicle (HV) was investigated. Adhesion forces are thought to be a combination of mechanical bond forces (such as anchor effect), chemical bond forces and physical bond forces (such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals force). Currently there is insufficient understanding of the adhesion mechanism. In particular, the extent to which the three bond forces contribute to adhesion strength. So the adhesion mechanism of polyimide primers was analyzed using a number of different methods, including transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation, to determine the contributions of the three bonding forces. Molecular simulation was also used to investigate the relationship between adhesion strength and the molecular structure of the primer.
Technical Paper

Development of resin back door glass for ES3

2003-10-27
2003-01-2816
Toyota is implementing various technical developments in various fields for protection of environment. Reducing the fuel consumption is a matter of great urgency for the reduction of CO2 emissions. In the technology of vehicle body development, mass reduction and the improvement of aerodynamics are mainly important for fuel economy. As the one of way for this, we adopted resin glass as the back door glass of ES3, small-sized low-fuel consumption vehicle. (Figure 1,2,3) The first advantage of resin glass is the low density that weights about a half of inorganic glass. However resin glass is needed higher thickness for equivalent rigidity, as the result approximately 41% mass reduction was achieved. However resin glass is relatively expensive. Therefore it seems to be difficult to expand the usage of resin for this application. Then, we focused on additional advantage of resin glass, in order to make good use of resin glass. The second advantage of resin glass is design flexibility.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) Powder Slush Material for Interior Parts

2002-03-04
2002-01-0312
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) Powder Slush material for automotive interior parts, like instrument panels and door trim was developed as an alternative material for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Powder Slush. Generally, TPU has poor anti-alcohol performance. However this performance has to be improved for automotive interior parts because the common cleaner solvent for interior parts usually contains some type of alcohol. Through our study of various TPU formulas, sufficient anti-alcohol performance was achieved by introducing aromatic polyol. Due to negative effects of aromatic polyol for low temperature and melting properties, additional study for plasticizer was essential. These properties are important for air bag deployment performance and moldability of powder slush. In order to solve these problems, various types and amounts of plasticizer were studied. Benzoic ester produced the best balance between compatibility with urethane polymer and anti-fogging performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermoplastic CFRP for Stack Frame

2016-04-05
2016-01-0532
Weight reduction for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) is important to contribute a long driving range. One approach to reduce vehicle weight involves using a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) which has a high specific strength and stiffness. However, a conventional thermoset CFRP requires a long chemical reaction time and it is not easy to introduce into mass production vehicles. In this study, a new compression-moldable thermoplastic CFRP material for mass production body structural parts was developed and applied to the stack frame of the Toyota Mirai.
Technical Paper

Development of Sealing Material Used in the Body Welding Shop

2007-04-16
2007-01-0418
1 The principal characteristics required of sealing materials used in the body shop have focused on their adhesion to oily steel sheets and quick curing performance. Means for attaining these characteristics have been narrowed down to a basic resin system and a curing system. Various techniques have been studied to ensure proper anti-corrosion performance at the sealer application boundaries and thin application areas. They include the addition of anti-corrosion fillers, the provision of conductivity (through electro-deposition), and the application of a micro foam film over the application boundaries. Thus, prospects for attaining the same level of anti-corrosion performance as existing materials have been achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of New Generation PP Material for Instrumental Panel and Bumper Application

2003-03-03
2003-01-0210
Toyota has developed new PP Compound materials for Instrument Panel (IP) and Bumper applications. The target of this development is to keep the same level of superior performance as the current Toyota materials, to make these materials available in all main regions, and to achieve the remarkable cost reduction. One of the main points of this development is to adopt the advanced material of “High-Elastomer-contained and High-Crystalline PP (HEHCPP)”. Using this advanced PP significantly reduces the amount of expensive “Added Rubber” that is necessary, and it helps simplify the PP compounding process. By the optimization of the raw material contents and the molecular weight of polymerized rubber, it has been confirmed in all regions that the newly developed materials show equivalent mechanical properties and processability to Toyota's current IP and Bumper materials.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture Model for Laser Screw Welding

2016-04-05
2016-01-1344
This paper describes the development of a fracture finite element (FE) model for laser screw welding (LSW) and validation of the model with experimental results. LSW was developed and introduced to production vehicles by Toyota Motor Corporation in 2013. LSW offers superb advantages such as increased productivity and short pitch welding. Although the authors had previously developed fracture FE models for conventional resistance spot welding (RSW), a fracture model for LSW has not been developed. To develop this fracture model, many comprehensive experiments were conducted. The results revealed that LSW had twice as many variations in fracture modes compared to RSW. Moreover, fracture mode bifurcations were also found to result from differences in clearance between welded plates. In order to analyze LSW fracture phenomena, detailed FE models using fine hexahedral elements were developed.
Journal Article

Development of Bio-Based Plastics for Injection Molding

2009-04-20
2009-01-0019
Technological development of materials derived from plants (e.g., polylactic acid (PLA), and the like) is required to break dependence on fossil fuels and reduce CO2. PLA has inferior hydrolysis resistance, impact resistance, and molding ability than polypropylene (PP), and in order to overcome these disadvantages, a novel PP/PLA alloy has been conceived where PLA is incorporated into a PP matrix. By optimizing compatibilizer and elastomer addition, PLA has been successfully dispersed into a PP matrix at a sub-micron order, and interior parts have been successfully developed that fulfill the performance, appearance, and mass-production capability requirements for practical application.
Technical Paper

Development of Automotive Rubber Parts with New Recycling Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0015
Rubber is a thermosetting material and as such is generally considered difficult to recycle; therefore there is a demand for the development of rubber recycling technology to protect the environment and conserve resources. Some technologies exist to recycle vulcanized rubber, but none of these has high enough productivity to produce reclaimed rubber, and re-vulcanized rubber does not have the same properties as virgin rubber materials. Now a new recycling technology, called Shear Flow Stage Reactor, has been developed for rubber reclamation. This new technology has high productivity and can achieve the same properties as virgin materials. Automotive parts have been developed and are being produced with recycled Ethylene-Propylene-diene Rubber (EPDM) based on this new technology. The performance of the developed parts is the same as the parts made from virgin materials.
Journal Article

Application Study of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Constitutive Model for Dynamic Behavior of Suspension Arm Bushing

2016-04-05
2016-01-1375
Ride quality is an important purchasing consideration for consumers. It is typically defined in terms of noise, vibration and harshness. These phenomena are a result of vibrations caused at the engine/powertrain and from the road surface, which are transmitted to the passenger cabin. To minimize such vibrations, rubber parts are used extensively at mounting points for the cabin, such as engine mountings and suspension bushings. The vehicle development process increasingly requires performance testing, including rubber parts using CAE, prior to prototype evaluation. This in turn requires a rubber material model that can accurately describe dynamic characteristics of rubber components, particularly frequency and amplitude dependency.
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