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Journal Article

Ride Comfort Analysis Considering Suspension Friction with Series Rigidity

A dynamics model considering series rigidity was constructed to examine suspension friction, which has a major effect on ride comfort on paved roads. The friction characteristics of the bushings, ball joints, and shock absorbers are expressed with series elastic elements such as arm rigidity and the spring constant of the oil seals. It was confirmed that the calculated values for the overall spring constant and damping coefficient of the suspension virtually matched values measured in a 4-post shaker test. In addition, the results of analysis using this dynamics model confirmed that the degree of friction affects both the damping coefficient and the spring constant of the suspension, especially when the series rigidity is high. Also highly rigid friction has an adverse effect on sprung motion in frequency ranges above 15 Hz. After suspension enhancements were adopted based on these findings, 4-post shaker tests confirmed that sprung motion above 2 Hz improved..
Technical Paper

Research of the Relationship of Pedestrian Injury to Collision Speed, Car-type, Impact Location and Pedestrian Sizes using Human FE model (THUMS Version 4)

Injuries in car to pedestrian collisions are affected by various factors such as the vehicle body type, pedestrian body size and impact location as well as the collision speed. This study aimed to investigate the influence of such factors taking a Finite Element (FE) approach. A total of 72 collision cases were simulated using three different vehicle FE models (Sedan, SUV, Mini-Van), three different pedestrian FE models (AM50, AF05, AM95), assuming two different impact locations (center and the corner of the bumper) and at four different collision speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 km/h). The impact kinematics and the responses of the pedestrian model were validated against those in the literature prior to the simulations. The relationship between the collision speed and the predicted occurrence of head and chest injuries was examined for each case, analyzing the impact kinematics of the pedestrian against the vehicle body and resultant loading to the head and the chest.
Technical Paper

Occupant Kinematics and Estimated Effectiveness of Side Airbags in Pole Side Impacts Using a Human FE Model with Internal Organs

When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre-impact Pedestrian Posture on Lower Extremity Kinematics in Vehicle Collisions

Lower extremities are the most frequently injured body regions in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions and such injuries usually lead to long-term loss of health or permanent disability. However, influence of pre-impact posture on the resultant impact response has not been understood well. This study aims to investigate the effects of preimpact pedestrian posture on the loading and the kinematics of the lower extremity when struck laterally by vehicle. THUMS pedestrian model was modified to consider both standing and mid-stance walking postures. Impact simulations were conducted under three severities, including 25, 33 and 40 kph impact for both postures. Global kinematics of pedestrian was studied. Rotation of the knee joint about the three axes was calculated and pelvic translational and rotational motions were analyzed.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen

This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused.
Journal Article

Efficiency Improvement of Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Bus by Silicon Carbide Diodes

The adoption of silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors is regarded as a promising means of improving the fuel efficiency of all types of electrically powered vehicles, including plug-in, electric, fuel cell, and hybrid vehicles (PHVs, EVs, FCVs, and HVs). For this reason, adoption in a wide variety of vehicles is currently being studied, including in the fuel cell (FC) boost converter of an FC bus. The FC boost converter controls the output voltage of the FC up to 650 V. In this research, SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SiC-SBDs) were adopted in the upper arm of an FC boost converter. Since the forward voltage (Vf) of SiC-SBDs is smaller than conventional Si-PiN diodes (Si-PiNDs), the conduction loss of SiC-SBDs is correspondingly smaller. Recovery loss can also be reduced by at least 90% compared to Si-PiNDs since the recovery current of SiC-SBDs is substantially smaller.
Technical Paper

Development of a Human FE Model with 3-D Geometry of Muscles and Lateral Impact Analysis for the Arm with Muscle Activity

To investigate the effect of muscle activity in pre-impact on injury outcome, we developed a human arm finite element model with muscles which consisted of solid elements and truss elements that could be used for simulating muscle stiffness change for the inputted activity and 3-D geometry of each muscle. Two series of experimental tests on muscle stiffness change and arm flexion were conducted for validation of the model. Comparisons between the simulation results and test data indicated the model validity. Lateral impact simulations for a left arm demonstrated that the muscle activity in pre-impact had significant effects on the motion and stress distribution of the arm bones.
Technical Paper

Development of a Human Body Finite Element Model with Multiple Muscles and their Controller for Estimating Occupant Motions and Impact Responses in Frontal Crash Situations

A few reports suggest differences in injury outcomes between cadaver tests and real-world accidents under almost similar conditions. This study hypothesized that muscle activity could primarily cause the differences, and then developed a human body finite element (FE) model with individual muscles. Each muscle was modeled as a hybrid model of bar elements with active properties and solid elements with passive properties. The model without muscle activation was firstly validated against five series of cadaver test data on impact responses in the anterior-posterior direction. The model with muscle activation levels estimated based on electromyography (EMG) data was secondly validated against four series of volunteer test data on bracing effects for stiffness and thickness of an upper arm muscle, and braced driver's responses under a static environment and a brake deceleration.
Technical Paper

Development of Pre-Crash Intelligent Head Restraint

If a crash prediction system (Rear pre-crash safety) determines that a rear crash is unavoidable, this product reduces whiplash injury by reducing shock to the neck by quickly moving the front part of a head restraint forward thus shortening the distance between the head and the head restraint. Pre-crash intelligent head restraint systems were developed for safe vehicle. In this paper, the method to detect collision risk and how to protect passenger's heads was introduced. Also sensor idea and operating mechanism were explained.
Journal Article

Development of Injury Probability Functions for the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

The goal of this study was to develop injury probability functions for the leg bending moment and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) elongation of the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) based on human response data available from the literature. Data for the leg bending moment at fracture in dynamic 3-point bending were geometrically scaled to an average male using the standard lengths obtained from the anthropometric study, based on which the dimensions of the Flex-PLI were determined. Both male and female data were included since there was no statistically significant difference in bone material property. Since the data included both right censored and uncensored data, the Weibull Survival Model was used to develop a human leg fracture probability function.
Technical Paper

Ankle Skeletal Injury Predictions Using Anisotropic Inelastic Constitutive Model of Cortical Bone Taking into Account Damage Evolution

The most severe ankle skeletal injury called pilon fractures can cause long term disability and impairment. Based on previous experimental studies, the pilon fractures are regarded as caused by a high-energy compressive force in the ankle joint and affected by a muscular tension force generated by emergency braking. However, quantitative injury criteria for the pilon fractures are still unknown. More accurate prediction of bone fractures in the distal tibia using a FE model of human lower leg can help us know the quantitative injury criteria. Therefore we newly proposed an anisotropic inelastic constitutive model of cortical bone including damage evolution and then implemented it to a FE code, LS-DYNA. The proposed model successfully reproduced most of anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and asymmetry of tension and compression on material and failure properties of human femoral cortical bone.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knee Joint Kinematics and Mechanics using a Human FE Model

Posterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur can stretch the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Fifteen millimeters of relative displacement between the femur and tibia is known as the Injury Assessment Reference Value (IARV) for the PCL injury. Since the anterior protuberance of the tibial plateau can be the first site of contact when the knee is flexed, the knee bolster is generally designed with an inclined surface so as not to directly load the projection in frontal crashes. It should be noted, however, that the initial flexion angle of the occupant knee can vary among individuals and the knee flexion angle can change due to the occupant motion. The behavior of the tibial protuberance related to the knee flexion angle has not been described yet. The instantaneous angle of the knee joint at the timing of restraining the knee should be known to manage the geometry and functions of knee restraint devices.
Technical Paper

A Study of Driver Injury Mechanism in High Speed Lateral Impacts of Stock Car Auto Racing Using a Human Body FE Model

This paper analyzed the mechanisms of injury in high speed, right-lateral impacts of stock car auto racing, and interaction of the occupant and the seat system for the purpose of reducing the risk of injury, primarily rib fractures. Many safety improvements have been made to stock car racing recently, including the Head and Neck Support devices (HANS®), the 6-point restraint harnesses, and the implementation of the SAFER Barrier. These improvements have contributed greatly to mitigating injury during the race crash event. However, there is still potential to improve the seat structure and the understanding of the interaction between the driver and the seat in the continuation of making racing safety improvements. This is particularly true in the case of right-lateral impacts where the primary interaction is between the seat supports and the driver and where the chest is the primary region of injury.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cervical Spine Kinematics and Joint Capsule Strain in Rear Impacts using a Human FE Model

Many efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of whiplash injury. Recently, the cervical facet joint capsules have been focused on as a potential site of injury. An experimental approach has been taken to analyze the vertebral motion and to estimate joint capsule stretch that was thought to be a potential cause of pain. The purpose of this study is to analyze the kinematics of the cervical facet joint using a human FE model in order to better understand the injury mechanism. The Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) was used to visually analyze the local and global kinematics of the spine. Soft tissues in the neck were newly modeled and introduced into THUMS for estimating the loading level in rear impacts. The model was first validated against human test data in the literature by comparing vertebrae motion as well as head and neck responses. Joint capsule strain was estimated from a maximum principal strain output from the elements representing the capsule tissues.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects

The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy / Mx peak values were 4500 N / 50 Nm, 2400 N / 130 Nm, and 5300 N / 150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s.