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Technical Paper

Solar Module Laminated Constitution for Automobiles

Replacing the metal car roof with conventional solar modules results in the increase of total car weight and change of center of mass, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for the cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new challenges. In this paper a new solar module structure that weighs as light as conventional steel car roofs, resolving these challenges is proposed.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Turbocharger Rotor for High Performance Automotive Engines

Toyota Motor Corporation has mass-produced turbochargers with silicon nitride ceramic rotors since October, 1989. Those turbochargers have been introduced into Celica and MR-2 which are Toyota sporty-type passenger cars. The designing of ceramic rotor was carried out in order to ensure the strength and durability of the component as well as to obtain the same aerodynamic characteristics as in the metal rotor. A moment of inertia was reduced by 60% using ceramic rotor which improved turbocharger response. The ceramic rotor was joined to metal shaft by new method which compensated problems in both shrink fitting and active brazing methods. High temperature strength of silicon nitride material was improved by controlling the amount of sintering additives and sintering conditions. The ceramic injection moulding was employed to mass-produce rotors with complicated shape, applying optimun binder compositions and moulding conditions.
Technical Paper

Reliability Problem Prevention Method for Automotive Components - Development of GD3 Activity and DRBFM (Design Review Based on Failure Mode)-

Recently, the concept of Mizen Boushi (reliability problem prevention) has been applied in automotive development as a tool to refine drawings to the greatest completion possible by the prototype stage. GD3 is a quality innovation process that supports this objective, based on the pillars of Good Design, Good Discussion, and Good Design Review. Good Design tries to nip problems in the bud, and Good Discussion and Good Design Review are used to formulate the best countermeasures to those problems. The process utilizes creative FMEA (Failure Mode & Effects Analysis), FTA (Fault Tree Analysis), and a System Design Review. These tools focus attention on the many potential problems that could occur due to a change in design or environment. The System Design Review is especially useful to examine potential failure modes, root causes, part drawings, and prototype part designs. This is followed by a Design Review Based on Failure Mode (DRBFM for short), as a tool to guide discussion.
Journal Article

Prediction of Low Frequency Vibration Caused by Power Train Using Multi-Body Dynamics

1 To predict accurately low frequency vibration caused by the power train, it is essential to consider both the non-steady state characteristics of the engine exciting force and the frequency and amplitude dependent non-linear characteristics of the various components of the transfer system. Conventional steady-state linear analysis using finite element methods (FEM) is unable to handle these characteristics, and as a result, its prediction accuracy is insufficient. This research is based on a multi-body dynamics (MBD) model that is capable of handling non-steady state and non-linear analysis, into which in-cylinder pressure prediction methods were incorporated. The technology developed took into consideration the non-linear characteristics of the transfer system and thereby enabled highly accurate predictions of all systems associated with the vibration reaching the vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Clarification of Determination Factors of Diesel Exhaust Emission Using a Single Cylinder Engine and Model Fuels - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part I

Single cylinder engine testing was carried out to clearly understand the test results of multi-cylinder engines reported by the Diesel WG in JCAP (Japan Clean Air Program) (1), (2), (3) and (4). In this tests, engine specifications such as fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, turbo-charging pressure, EGR rate, and fuel properties such as 1-, 2-, 3-ring aromatics content, n-,i-paraffins content, and T90 were parametrically changed and their influence on the emissions were studied. PM emission generally increased in each engine condition with increased aromatic contents and T90. In particular, multi ring aromatics brought about large increases in PM regardless of the engine conditions. The influence of fuel properties on NOx emission is smaller than the influence on PM emission. Some other fuels that have various side chain structures of 1-ring aromatics, normal paraffins only and various naphthene contents were also investigated.
Journal Article

Low-viscosity Gear Oil Technology to Improve Wear at Tapered Roller Bearings in Differential Gear Unit

Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
Journal Article

High Efficiency Electromagnetic Torque Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

A new concept of an electromagnetic torque converter for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The electromagnetic torque converter, which is an electric system comprised of a set of double rotors and a stator, works as a high-efficiency transmission in the driving conditions of low gear ratio including a vehicle moving-off and as a starting device for an internal combustion engine. Moreover, it can be used for an electric vehicle driving as well as for a regenerative braking. In this concept, a high-efficiency drivetrain system for hybrid electric vehicles is constructed by replacing a fluid-type torque converter with the electromagnetic torque converter in the automatic transmission of a conventional vehicle. In this paper, we present the newly developed electromagnetic torque converter with a compact structure that enables mounting on a vehicle, and we evaluate its transmission efficiency by experiment.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling Method of Vibro-Acoustic Systems for Mid-Frequency Simulation

Current vehicle acoustic performance prediction methods, CAE (computer aided engineering) or physical testing, have some difficulty predicting interior sound in the mid-frequency range (300 to 1000 Hz). It is in this frequency range where the overall acoustic performance becomes sensitive to not only the contributions of structure-borne sources, which can be studied using traditional finite element analysis (FEA) methods, but also the contribution of airborne noise sources which increase proportional to frequency. It is in this higher frequency range (>1000 Hz) that physical testing and statistical CAE methods are traditionally used for performance studies. This paper will discuss a study that was undertaken to test the capability of a finite element modeling method that can accurately simulate air-borne noise phenomena in the mid-frequency range.
Journal Article

FEM System Development for Dynamic Response Analysis of Acoustic Trim

The multilayer vehicle trim is well known for its effective influence upon noise and vibration characteristics not only in the high-frequency range but also in the low and mid-frequency ranges. FEM technologies which represent the accurate stiffness, mass and damping of trim parts such as the dash silencer and the floor carpet are essential in order to extend current body FEM capability to the road noise and the engine noise issues generated in the mid-frequency range. Conventional modeling methodologies such as local impedance and/or spring-mass modeling that express absorption and insulation properties of acoustic trim contain limitations in the mid-frequency range. There are few reliable FEM technologies to create practical vehicle models that represent the precise characteristics of the trim. In this paper, poroelastic modeling of acoustic multilayer trim was established by employing Biot theory.
Technical Paper

Development of Reduction Method for Whirl Noise on Turbocharger

The whirl noise on turbochargers is generated by the self-induced vibration of the oil film in the bearing system. The noise is characterized by its frequency behavior that doesn't increase proportionately to the turbo shaft speed. It tends to be felt annoying. In this paper, to improve the whirl vibration, a statistical analysis approach was applied to the bearing specifications. The results from experiments showed that the bearing clearances played an important role in the reduction of the whirl vibration. To further investigate into this phenomenon, the shaft oscillation behavior was measured. And a vibration simulation program for the turbocharger bearing system was also developed.
Technical Paper

Development of Computer Aided Engineering for Piston Design

Computer Aided Engineering system for automotive piston design was developed which can predict total piston performance in a short time at the planning stage of piston design. Many previous studies attempted to calculate piston performance accurately with experimental data and their main purpose was not to create a tool for piston design. The purpose of this CAE system is to provide a tool for a designer to predict total piston performance easily and rapidly without experimental data. This system has following two characteristics. Firstly, new finite element methods were developed which can predict temperature distribution without experimental data, thermal skirt expansion for a strutted piston and skirt-to-bore contact pressure under engine operating conditions. The predicted result are accurate enough to predict piston performance at the planning stage of piston design.
Technical Paper

Development of Bicycle Carrier for Bicyclist Pre-Collision System Evaluation

According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system.
Journal Article

Clarification of Transient Characteristics by Coupled Analysis of Powertrains and Vehicles

With the goal of improving drivability, this research aimed to clarify the mechanism of vehicle longitudinal acceleration, focusing on tip-in acceleration. Conventional typical analysis methods include experimental modal and model-based analysis. However, since the former requires the measurement of impulses and other input forces while the vehicle is stopped, measurement under actual driving conditions is difficult. The latter requires characteristic values such as the stiffness and damping coefficients to be identified in advance, which cannot be achieved either easily or precisely. Therefore, this paper proposes a new experiment-based analysis method. This method enables the acquisition of engine torque and transmission torque/force by measuring only the acceleration values of some components under driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of FEM Results Based upon FOA

In FOA (First Order Analysis) any vehicle body structure might be interpreted as a collective simple structure that can be decomposed into 3 fundamental structure types. The first structure is the “BEAM”, whose cross sectional properties as well as its material dominates the mechanical behavior, the second is the “PANEL (shear panel, plate, and shell)”, whose mechanical behavior can be varied by changing its geometrical properties in the thickness direction, i.e. adding beads or flanges. The third structure is the “JOINT”, which connects the proceeding structures, and transfer complex three-dimensional loads with three-dimensional deformation. In the present work, we shall propose a methodology to identify a portion of an arbitrary FE model of an automotive body structure, with a “BEAM” structure in the FOA approach. In the latter chapter of this paper, cross section loads will be related with cross sectional properties in the aspect of the element strain energy concept.