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Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs. The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES): 1st Report: Phenomenological Multi-Zone PDF Model for Predicting the Transient Behavior of Diesel Engine Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-0843
We have developed a novel engine cycle simulation program (UniDES: universal diesel engine simulator) to reproduce the diesel combustion process over a wide range of engine operating parameters, such as the amount of injected fuel, the injection timing, and the EGR ratio. The approach described in this paper employs a zoning model, where the in-cylinder region is divided into up to five zones. We also applied a probability density function (PDF) concept to each zone to consider the effect of spatial non-homogeneities, such as local equivalence ratios and temperature, on the combustion characteristics. We linked this program to the commonly used commercial GT-Power® software (UniDES+GT). As a result, we were able to reproduce transient engine behavior very accurately.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0881
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Technical Paper

Research on the Measures for Improving Cycle-to-Cycle Variations under High Tumble Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0694
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way for accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid and conventional vehicles in recent years. Toyota has been introducing these technologies as ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion). Improving cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion, in addition to fast combustion is essential for achieving high engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Blending ETBE to Diesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1866
The effects of blending ETBE to diesel fuel on the characteristics of low temperature diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated in a naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with large rates of cooled EGR. Low temperature smokeless diesel combustion in a wide EGR range was established with ETBE blended diesel fuel as mixture homogeneity is promoted with increased premixed duration due to decreases in ignitability as well as with improvement in fuel vaporization due to the lower boiling point of ETBE. Increasing the ETBE content in the fuel helps to suppress smoke emissions and maintain efficient smokeless operation when increasing EGR, however a too high ETBE content causes misfiring at larger rates of EGR. While the NOx emissions increase with increases in ETBE content at high intake oxygen concentrations, NOx almost completely disappears when reducing the intake oxygen content below 14 % with cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Examination of Discrete Dynamics Model for Diesel Combustion and Model-Based Feedback Control System (Second Report)

2015-09-01
2015-01-1848
The dynamics model and model-based controller (LQG servo controller) have been constructed to improve performance of diesel engine in transient condition. The input parameters of the model are fuel quantity of main injection, timing of main injection, fuel quantity of pilot injection, timing of pilot injection, external EGR ratio and boost pressure. The parameters that are succeeded between cycles to express transient condition are residual gas temperature and of residual oxygen. In the model, one cycle is discretized into 10 representative points. The precision of the accuracy of the model and the responsiveness of the controller were confirmed.
Journal Article

Engine Technologies for Achieving 45% Thermal Efficiency of S.I. Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1896
To correspond to the social requirements such as energy security, and climate change, enhancing engine thermal efficiency is strongly required in these days. As for the specific engine technologies to improve engine thermal efficiency, Atkinson cycle, cooled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and low friction technologies have been developed [1, 2, 3, 4]. As a result, the current maximum thermal efficiency comes close to 40%. However, since it is considered that much higher engine thermal efficiency is required in the future to meet more stringent social requirements, a new prototype L4 engine which features a long stroke design with a high tumble is investigated to clarify the future direction in this paper. In regard to combustion, the lean boosted concept with cooled EGR is examined. In consequence, it is shown that more than 45% engine thermal efficiency can be achieved. This paper describes the means to enhance engine thermal efficiency and a future possibility.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1815
Effects of fuel distillation characteristics and cetane number on premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion were investigated for the purpose of reducing NOx and PM emissions from a direct injection diesel engine. The test engine had a hole type injection nozzle for conventional diesel combustion at high load operation. A low compression ratio and cooled EGR were applied to the test engine in order to reduce the compression temperature for avoiding pre-ignition. The investigation results show that, in the case of ignition control by EGR, a light fuel with lower distillation characteristics had an advantage of reducing smoke at higher loads. This means that high volatility fuel is effective in promoting lean mixture formation of fuel and air during the ignition delay. Moreover, lowering the cetane number was effective in reducing NOx emissions by suppression of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0028
A concept of dual-fuel, Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) combustion controlled by two fuels with different ignitability has been developed to achieve drastically low NOx and smoke emissions. In this system, isooctane, which was used to represent high-octane gasoline, was supplied from an intake port and diesel fuel was injected directly into an engine cylinder at early timing as ignition trigger. It was found that the ignition timing of this PCI combustion can be controlled by changing the ratio of amounts of injected two fuels and combustion proceeds very mildly by making spatial stratifications of ignitability in the cylinder even without EGR, as preventing the whole mixture from igniting simultaneously. The operable range of load, where NOx and smoke were less than 10ppm and 0.1 FSN, respectively, was extended up to 1.2MPa of IMEP using an intake air boosting system together with dual fueling.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Emissions and Performance Optimization for Neat GTL Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1405
The emissions reduction potential of neat GTL (Gas to Liquids: Fischer-Tropsch synthetic gas-oil derived from natural gas) fuels has been preliminarily evaluated by three different latest-generation diesel engines with different displacements. In addition, differences in combustion phenomena between the GTL fuels and baseline diesel fuel have been observed by means of a single cylinder engine with optical access. From these findings, one of the engines has been modified to improve both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption simultaneously, assuming the use of neat GTL fuels. The conversion efficiency of the NOx (oxides of nitrogen) reduction catalyst has also been improved.
Technical Paper

Development of the New THS-II Powertrain for Compact Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1017
Reflecting on the world's trend on saving crude oil consumption and to create an economical fuel efficient vehicle for the increasing world population, a new THS-II HV powertrain has been developed for the compact vehicle class. The application of a THS type powertrain for the compact vehicle class was a first for the world and to achieve it, brand new hardware, and software needed to be developed. For the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), state of the art technologies such as the use of the Atkinson cycle with Variable Valve Timing (VVT), cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), an electric water pump, a compact exhaust manifold, a Low Friction chain, beltless system and exhaust heat recovery system were applied. For the electric motor, copper wire with a rectangular cross section and divided stator cores combined with a newly developed production process were applied for higher volumetric density.
Technical Paper

Development of a New V-6 High Performance Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1152
A new V-6 stoichiometric gasoline direct injection engine was developed for high performance FR (Front Engine Rear Drive) vehicles. High power performance, low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions were achieved by employing a stoichiometric direct injection system that uses Toyota's unique slit nozzle injector that generates a fan-shaped fuel spray and variable intake and exhaust valve timing systems. Focusing on the power performance, maximum power of 183kW (61kW/L) is achieved at 6200rpm and maximum torque is 312Nm at 3600rpm. This power performance is among the top production 3.0 L gasoline engines in the world. This paper outlines the features of this engine and some special technologies contributing to the achievement of the above-mentioned high performance. Optimizing the intake-port design was done to improve power performance.
Technical Paper

Development of New 1.8-Liter Engine for Hybrid Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1061
In recent years, attention has been focused on a hybrid vehicle capable of substantial reductions in CO2 exhaust emissions. This paper describes the newly developed 1.8-liter 2ZR-FXE gasoline engine for use with a hybrid system for compact vehicles, which effectively combines higher driving performance with higher fuel efficiency. This engine was based on the 1.8-liter 2ZR-FE engine with outstanding performance and fuel efficiency. This engine has achieved high thermal efficiency by using the high-expansion ratio cycle “Atkinson cycle”, as with the previous 1NZ-FXE engine. Additionally, a new cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and electric water pump were adopted to further improve fuel efficiency. A high efficiency cooler was used to cool the EGR gas, which enabled the introduction of the EGR gas at high load conditions, and exhaust gas temperature was reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure Loop EGR System for Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1413
Low pressure loop (LPL) EGR systems are effective means of simultaneously reducing the NOx emissions and fuel consumption of diesel engines. Further lower emission levels can be achieved by adopting a system that combines LPL EGR with a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. However, this combined system has to overcome the issue of combustion fluctuations resulting from changes in the air-fuel ratio due to EGR gas recirculation from either NOx reduction control or diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. The aim of this research was to reduce combustion fluctuations by developing LPL EGR control logic. In order to control the combustion fluctuations caused by LPL EGR, it is necessary to estimate the recirculation time. First, recirculation delay was investigated. It was found that recirculation delay becomes longer when the LPL EGR flow rate or engine speed is low.
Technical Paper

Development of High Tumble Intake-Port for High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0692
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way of accomplishing this is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Mitigating knock and reducing engine heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. In EGR equipped engines, fast combustion is regarded as one of the most important technologies, since it realizes higher EGR ratio. To create fast combustion, generation of strong in-cylinder turbulence is necessary. Strong in-cylinder turbulence is achieved through swirl, squish, and tumble flows. Specifically high tumble flow has been adopted on a number of new engines because of the intense effect of promoting in-cylinder turbulence.
Technical Paper

Development of Direct and Fast Response Gas Measurement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0758
Due to regulations for even lower levels of pollutants in exhaust gas, development of advanced combustion techniques and increasingly efficient catalysts has become more crucial than ever. One of the essential technologies to achieve this goal is an advanced measurement method, which can detect the characteristics of exhaust gas, such as temperature and chemical compositions, in real-time to clarify their reaction mechanisms. A direct and fast response (1ms) measurement technique was developed based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy and applied to practical engine exhaust measurement to prove the validity of this technology for various applications such as clarification of engine start phenomena and improvement of EGR controls.
Technical Paper

Development of Closed-Loop Robust Control System for Diesel Engines - Combustion Monitoring by Crank Angular Velocity Analysis and its Applications -

2012-04-16
2012-01-1157
Closed-loop robust control system that can monitor combustion state and control it into optimal state using crank angular velocity analysis was established. The system can be constructed without any change of the current hardware. It can avoid engine stall, deterioration of drivability and white smoke emission by misfire after filling low cetane fuels. This study was attempted to grasp the frequency characteristics of crank angular velocity both normal combustion and misfire with FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and Wavelet Transform. FFT used for frequency analysis is generic method to acquire the frequency characteristics of steady oscillation, however is unsuitable for acquiring the frequency characteristics of transient oscillation. Therefore authors adopted Wavelet Transform and succeeded in grasping the phenomenon in misfiring in time sequential.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

2006-10-16
2006-01-3386
This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Journal Article

Combustion Development to Realize High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0693
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
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