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Technical Paper

Study of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Exhaust System

An investigation was conducted into pressure pulsation in the exhaust port, which greatly affects volumetric efficiency and engine performance. From experiments using a single blow-down generator, it was established that the amplitude of the pressure pulsation increases as the manifold branch is lengthened and that large negative pressure synchronized with the timing of valve overlap can be obtained if a proper branch length is used. The performance of a 2ℓ test engine was optimized by varying the length of both the manifold branches and front pipe forks. It was found that whereas front pipe fork length affects engine performance over only a narrow range of engine speed, optimizing manifold branch length results in a considerable improvement over a wide engine speed range. In the course of optimizing the exhaust pipe manifold length of this two-degree-of-freedom exhaust system, abnormal exhaust noises were emitted at specific engine speeds during deceleration.
Technical Paper

Smart Algorithm for a Tire Pneumatic Pressure Monitor Embedded in ABS Program

This paper describes methods to attain a low cost tire pneumatic pressure monitor. We already established two kinds of algorithms for indirect detection of under-inflated tires without requiring any air pressure sensors. One method is to use a disturbance observer and the least mean square method. The other method is to compare the loaded radii of the tires. We have developed an algorithm that reduces the number of calculations needed, while maintaining a relatively small program size, and realized a tire pneumatic pressure monitor that does not require any hardware cost, by incorporating it into the program for the antilock brake system (ABS).
Technical Paper

Occupant Kinematics and Estimated Effectiveness of Side Airbags in Pole Side Impacts Using a Human FE Model with Internal Organs

When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models.
Journal Article

Measurement of Oil Film Pressure in the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine Using Thin-Film Sensors

We developed a technique to measure oil film pressure distribution in engine main bearings using thin-film pressure sensors. The sensor is 7μm in thickness, and is processed on the surface of an aluminum alloy bearing. In order to increase the durability of the sensor, a layer of MoS2 and polyamide-imide was coated on thin-film sensors. This technique was applied to a 1.4L common-rail diesel engine operated at a maximum speed of 4,500r/min with a 100Nm full load, and the oil film pressure was monitored while the engine was operating. The measured pressure was compared with calculations based on hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) theory.
Technical Paper

Low Frequency Airborne Panel Contribution Analysis and Vehicle Body Sensitivity to Exhaust Nnoise

The tendency for car engines to reduce the cylinder number and increase the specific torque at low rpm has led to significantly higher levels of low frequency pulsation from the exhaust tailpipe. This is a challenge for exhaust system design, and equally for body design and vehicle integration. The low frequency panel noise contributions were identified using pressure transmissibility and operational sound pressure on the exterior. For this the body was divided into patches. For all patches the pressure transmissibility across the body panels into the interior was measured as well as the sound field over the entire surface of the vehicle body. The panel contributions, the pressure distribution and transmissibility distribution information were combined with acoustic modal analysis in the cabin, providing a better understanding of the airborne transfer.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Blending ETBE to Diesel Fuel

The effects of blending ETBE to diesel fuel on the characteristics of low temperature diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated in a naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with large rates of cooled EGR. Low temperature smokeless diesel combustion in a wide EGR range was established with ETBE blended diesel fuel as mixture homogeneity is promoted with increased premixed duration due to decreases in ignitability as well as with improvement in fuel vaporization due to the lower boiling point of ETBE. Increasing the ETBE content in the fuel helps to suppress smoke emissions and maintain efficient smokeless operation when increasing EGR, however a too high ETBE content causes misfiring at larger rates of EGR. While the NOx emissions increase with increases in ETBE content at high intake oxygen concentrations, NOx almost completely disappears when reducing the intake oxygen content below 14 % with cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Ignition Characteristics of Hydrogen Jets in an Argon-Oxygen Atmosphere

The ignition delay and combustion characteristics of hydrogen jets in an argon-oxygen atmosphere were investigated to provide fundamental data for operating an argon-circulated hydrogen internal combustion engine. Experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel to study the effects of ambient temperature, ambient pressure, oxygen concentration and injection pressure on a pre-burning system. The hydrogen-jet penetration and flame were also investigated based on high-speed shadowgraph images. The experimental results indicated that the ignition delay (τ) increases as the ambient temperature (Ti) decreases, similar to the results obtained in an air atmosphere. The heat-release rate results also exhibited similar trends.
Technical Paper

Hot Gas Heater System

As a result of recent improvements in engine efficiency, vehicle heating performance has decreased and the demand for auxiliary heat sources is increasing. To help meet this need, we have developed an auxiliary heat system known as the “Hot Gas Heater”. The Hot Gas Heater uses components common to the vehicle air-conditioning system that are not used during winter. However, there are some concerns with this system. In this paper we describe our solutions to these problems. We reduced gas flow noise through multi-stage pressure reduction, and prevented fogging by adding “water retention memory” and “evaporator outlet air temperature control” functions to the system. As a further benefit, we developed a New Accumulator Cycle that moves the cooling cycle accumulator tank to the high-pressure side.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Seatbelt Pretensioner Loading of the Abdomen

This study characterizes the response of the human cadaver abdomen to high-speed seatbelt loading using pyrotechnic pretensioners. A test apparatus was developed to deliver symmetric loading to the abdomen using a seatbelt equipped with two low-mass load cells. Eight subjects were tested under worst-case scenario, out-of-position (OOP) conditions. A seatbelt was placed at the level of mid-umbilicus and drawn back along the sides of the specimens, which were seated upright using a fixed-back configuration. Penetration was measured by a laser, which tracked the anterior aspect of the abdomen, and by high-speed video. Additionally, aortic pressure was monitored. Three different pretensioner designs were used, referred to as system A, system B and system C. The B and C systems employed single pretensioners. The A system consisted of two B system pretensioners. The vascular systems of the subjects were perfused.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Technical Paper

Effects of Next-Generation Bio Diesel Fuel on the Engine Performance

Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) and Sugar-to-Diesel as next-generation bio diesel fuels consist of normal and iso-paraffin, and those carbon number of paraffinic hydrocarbons and distillation characteristics are narrow distribution. These characteristics would cause to deteriorate the evaporation and mixture with air and fuel. Therefore, in this study, the effects of normal paraffin (Tridecane) and iso-paraffin (HVO) on emission characteristics and cold start performance in a diesel engine were investigated by engine dynamometer tests, cold start vehicle tests, and spray analyzer tests. From the results, it was found that normal and iso-paraffin are beneficial for HC, CO, Smoke emission reduction. In addition, isomerization is effective for the diesel engine to fulfill cold start performance, since normal paraffin of narrow carbon number distribution became solidified under low temperature and high pressure condition in a common rail system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Sulfur-free and Aromatics-free Diesel Fuel on Vehicle Exhaust Emissions using Simultaneous PM and NOx Reduction System

A new diesel after-treatment system, Diesel Particulate and NOx Reduction System (DPNR), is being developed for reducing PM and NOx emissions. We examined the effects of sulfur content in lubricants on exhaust NOx emission from DPNR catalyst, and examined the PM reduction ability using sulfur-free and aromatics-free fuel. After vehicle durability testing of 40,000 km without forced regeneration of PM and sulfur poisoning on DPNR catalyst, deterioration of DPNR was lower than using higher sulfur contents in fuel and oil. In addition to decreasing fuel sulfur, decreasing oil sulfur was also effective to maintain high NOx conversion efficiency. Although the catalyst was poisoned by sulfur in the lubricants, the influence of oil sulfur poisoning on the catalyst was lower than fuel sulfur poisoning. On the other hand, engine out PM emissions decreased by 70 % because of aromatics-free fuel. The pressure drop of DPNR did not increase during the 40,000 km vehicle durability test.
Technical Paper

Development of a New DPNR Catalyst

We, at Toyota, have been working to develop a new DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction) system to decrease both PM and NOx emissions by combining the NOx storage-reduction catalyst for direct injection gasoline engines with the most advanced engine control technologies. The purpose of the DPNR catalyst is to decrease PM and NOx in order to purify automotive exhaust gas. To reduce PM emissions, the PM trapping rate and PM oxidizing performance must be improved. Since the deposition of PM increases the pressure drop across the catalytic converter, it should also be suppressed. To attain these objectives, we have developed a new DPNR catalyst by the adoption of a new porous substrate structure and the improvement of the catalyst coating technique. The new DPNR catalyst will be mounted on the Avensis for commercial use in the European market.
Journal Article

Development of a New Ceramic Substrate with Gas Flow Control Functionality

Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst. To achieve this contact, several measures were considered such as increasing active sites or geometrical surface areas by utilizing substrates with higher cell densities or larger volumes.
Technical Paper

Development of a Mechanical Pilot Injection Device for Automotive Diesel Engines

It is well known that pilot injection is an effective method of reducing diesel knock noise during idling, but no actual system has as yet been commercially produced. With the objective of developing a practicable pilot injection device, simulations were conducted of various simple mechanisms in order to determine the best specifications and analyze the fuel injection characteristics. Based on these results, a chamber expansion type pilot injection device, which enables the injection pump pressure chamber volume to be increased at a given moment during the fuel compression stroke, has been developed and has been found to remarkably decrease knock noise during cold idling. An investigation into the effects of this device on output power, exhaust emissions, cold startability and durability revealed that it is eminently suitable for practical application.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure and High Performance GPF Catalyst

Awareness of environmental protection with respect to the particulate number (PN) in the exhaust emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine vehicles has increased. In order to decrease the emission of particulate matter (PM), suppressing emissions by improving engine combustion, and/or filtering PM with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is effective. This paper describes the improvement of the coated GPF to reduce pressure drop while securing three-way performance and PN filtration efficiency. It was necessary to load a certain amount of washcoat on the GPF to add the three-way function, but this led to an increase in pressure drop that affected engine power. The pressure drop was influenced by the gas permeation properties of the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Journal Article

Calibration and Validation of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Model: from Synthetic Gas Testing to Driving Cycle Applications

To meet future stringent emission regulations such as Euro6, the design and control of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems will become more complex in order to ensure their optimum operation over time. Moreover, because of the strong pressure for CO₂ emissions reduction, the average exhaust temperature is expected to decrease, posing significant challenges on exhaust after-treatment. Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) are already widely used to reduce CO and hydrocarbons (HC) from diesel engine emissions. In addition, DOC is also used to control the NO₂/NOx ratio and to generate the exothermic reactions necessary for the thermal regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and NOx Storage and Reduction catalysts (NSR). The expected temperature decrease of diesel exhaust will adversely affect the CO and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) conversion efficiency of the catalysts. Therefore, the development cost for the design and control of new DOCs is increasing.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Behaviors of Swirl Nozzle Spray and Slit Nozzle Spray in Relation to DI Gasoline Combustion

Behavior of sprays formed by slit nozzle as well as swirl nozzles with the spray cone angle in the range of 40° ∼110 ° were studied in a constant volume N2 gas chamber. The fuels used are iso-pentane, n-heptane, benzene and gasoline. The ambient pressure and temperature were raised up to 1.0 MPa and 465 K, respectively. The injection pressure was mainly set at 8 MPa. Spray penetrates at an almost constant speed for a while after injection start and begins to decelerate at a certain point. This point was judged as breakup point, based on a momentum theory on spray motion, the observation of spray inside and the analysis of the spray front reacceleration which occurs under highly volatile condition.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.