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Technical Paper

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicles Part 1: Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicle Potential Considering Well-to-Wheel GHG Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1287
In recent years, automakers have been developing various types of environmentally friendly vehicles such as hybrid (HV), plug-in hybrid (PHV), electric (EV), and fuel cell (FCV) vehicles to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are few commercial solar vehicles on the market. One of the reasons why automakers have not focused attention on this area is because the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles under real conditions are unclear. There are two difficulties in measuring the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles: (1) vehicles travel under various conditions of sunlight exposure and (2) sunlight exposure conditions differ in each region. To address these problems, an analysis was performed based on an internet survey of 5,000 people and publically available meteorological data from 48 observation stations in Japan.
Technical Paper

New Slip Ring System for Electromagnetic Coupling in HEV Driveline

2016-04-05
2016-01-1222
This paper describes the slip ring system for a new hybrid system using an electromagnetic torque converter or an electromagnetic coupling. The slip ring system, which enables electric power transmission between a winding rotor and an inverter fixed on a case, is a key component for establishing a new highly efficient hybrid system. Reducing the wear of the brushes in the slip ring system is a major topic of this research. To achieve this objective, brush wear characteristics were investigated using test-piece experiments that simulated the hybrid system environment. By clarifying these characteristics, the structure of a slip ring system for reducing brush wear was identified and a wear prediction method was constructed.
Technical Paper

IGBT Gate Control Methods to Reduce Electrical Power Losses of Hybrid Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1224
Reducing the loss of the power control unit (PCU) in a hybrid vehicle (HV) is an important part of improving HV fuel efficiency. Furthermore the loss of power devices (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and diodes) used in the PCU must be reduced since this amounts to approximately 20% of the total electrical loss in an HV. One of the issues for reducing loss is the trade-off relationship with reducing voltage surge. To restrict voltage surge, it is necessary to slow down the switching speed of the IGBT. In contrast, the loss reduction requires the high speed switching. One widely known method to improve this trade-off relationship is to increase the gate voltage in two stages. However, accurate and high-speed operation of the IGBT gate control circuit is difficult to accomplish. This research clarifies a better condition of the two-stage control and designed a circuit that improves this trade-off relationship by increasing the speed of feedback control.
Technical Paper

Highly decorative, lightweight flexible solar cells for automotive applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0863
In 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration laid down strict standards for CO2 emissions and improved fuel economy for light-duty vehicles covering the model years 2017 to 2025. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar cells/modules is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar cells/modules. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful, light-weight, and flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for automotive application.
Technical Paper

Future Automotive Powertrain – Does Hybridization Enable ICE Vehicles to Strive Towards Sustainable Development?

2004-10-18
2004-21-0082
There exist many environmental and earth resources problems to be solved for the 21st century. Internal combustion engine / electric motor hybrid and fuel cell hybrid vehicles are promising next generation vehicles. This paper describes the current status of the electric power train of ICE hybrids. Based on the mutual features of both ICE and fuel cell hybrid vehicles, this paper also addresses the future opportunities to strive towards sustainable development in future automobiles. We also examine some test cycle to in-use efficiency issues.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness and Issues of Automotive Electric Power Generating System Using Solar Modules

2016-04-05
2016-01-1266
Solar and other green energy technologies are attracting attention as a means of helping to address global warming caused by CO2 and other emission gases. Countries, factories, and individual homes around the world have already introduced photovoltaic energy power sources, a trend that is likely to increase in the future. Electric vehicles powered from photovoltaic energy systems can help decrease the CO2 emmissions caused by vehicles. Unlike vehicles used for solar car racing, it is not easy to equip conventional vehicles with solar modules because the available area for module installation is very small to maintain cabin space, and the body lines of conventional vehicles are also usually slightly rounded. These factors decrease the performance of photovoltaic energy systems and prevent sufficient electric power generation. This research aimed to estimate the effectiveness of a solar module power generating system equipped on a conventional car, the Toyota Prius PHV.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota Plug-In Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0874
Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to concerns related to the automotive mobility like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which can use clean electric energy, and HV with it's high environmental potential and user-friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV which will be introduced in two years.
Technical Paper

Development of Plug-In Hybrid System for Midsize Car

2012-04-16
2012-01-1014
In recent years, many various energy sources have been investigated as replacements for traditional automotive fossil fuels to help reduce CO₂ emissions, respond to instabilities in the supply of fossil fuels, and reduce emissions of air pollutants in urban areas. Toyota Motor Corporation considers the plug-in hybrid vehicle, which can use electricity efficiently, to be the most practical current solution to these issues. For this reason, Toyota began sales of the Prius plug-in hybrid in early 2012 in both the U.S. and Japan. This is the first plug-in hybrid vehicle to be mass-produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. Prior to this, in December 2009, Toyota sold 650 plug-in hybrid vehicles through lease programs for verification testing in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The system of the recently launched mass-produced vehicle underwent major improvements in response to the results of this verification testing. As a result, EV range was increased with a smaller battery.
Journal Article

Development of New IGBT to Reduce Electrical Power Losses and Size of Power Control Unit for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1244
One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
Technical Paper

Development of Lithium-Ion Battery for Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0066
We developed a high performance automotive lithium-ion battery and applied it to our new Toyota Intelligent Idling Stop System. This hybrid power management system has been introduced in the “intelligent package” of Toyota Vitz vehicles sold in Japan. The lithium-ion battery is installed under the seat on the passenger-side. The battery supplies electric power to the auxiliary electrical systems during the “idling stop” mode, and when restarting the engine. The main requirements of this battery are to supply high electric power output even at low temperatures and at the same time, maintain continuous power during charge and discharge cycling, and have long storage life. This performance has been accomplished successfully through a series of improvements in battery materials and structures.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle System for City Commuter Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1447
Recently, automakers have launched various types of electric vehicles (EVs) to help reduce global CO₂ emissions and reduce dependency on fossil fuel energy. Because the lithium-ion batteries that are currently under development are restricted by energy density, the physical size and mass of the battery must be significantly increased to extend the cruising range of the EV. Furthermore, dedicated charging infrastructure is required to charge the battery in a short time. At SAE in 2012, Toyota Motor Corporation proposed a concept that described the EV as suitable mainly for short-distance transportation now and in the near future. Later in the same year, Toyota launched a new EV that embodies this concept in the American and Japanese markets. This new EV is light-weight and has a compact body size, and its battery capacity is designed to sufficiently cover distances traveled in daily life. Charging is assumed to take place mainly at home.
Journal Article

Development of Electric Power Control using the Capacitance Characteristics of the Fuel Cell

2011-04-12
2011-01-1346
Cold weather operation has been a major issue for fuel cell vehicles (FCV). In order to counteract this effect on FCV operation, an approach for rapid warm-up operation based on : concentration overvoltage increase and conversion efficiency decrease by limiting oxygen or hydrogen supply, was adopted in a running fuel cell hybrid vehicle. In order to adjust the output power response of the fuel cell to the target power of the vehicle, -the inherent capacitance characteristics of the fuel cell were measured- based on the oxidation-reduction reaction and an electric double-layer capacitor, and an equivalent electric circuit model of a fuel cell with the capacitance was constructed. This equivalent electric circuit model was used to develop a power control algorithm to manage absorption of the surplus power, or deviation, to the capacitance.
Journal Article

Development Solar Charging System of Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1598
Fuel consumption and CO2 emission regulations for vehicles, such as the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation, motivate renewable energy technologies in the automotive industry. Therefore, the automotive industry is focused on adopting solar charging systems. Some vehicles have adopted solar energy to power the ventilation system, but these vehicles do not use solar energy to power the drivetrain. One important issue facing the design of solar charging systems is the low power generated by solar panels. Compared to solar panels for residential use, solar panels for vehicles can’t generate as much power because of size and weight limitations. Also, the power generated by solar panels can be extremely affected depending on differences in solar radiation among the cells. Therefore, Toyota has developed a solar charging system that can use solar energy for driving the Prius PHV. This system can efficiently charge the hybrid battery with the low power generated by the solar panel.
Technical Paper

Crankshaft Positioning Utilizing Compression Force and Fast Starting with Combustion Assist for Indirect Injection Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1166
Toyota has been continuing to study economy and general-purpose starting technologies for smaller displacement engines, since market introduction of the 42-14V MHV in 2001. This study shows one of the strategies for nearly silent and fast starting for economy size cars, which have smaller displacement engines by utilizing a small MG (motor generator) at 12 Volts. The most significant issue for realizing advanced starting features (silent, fast and smooth) is the cost. Power electric components, especially, have a large cost disadvantage, which is generally proposed to the controlling power. So efforts were made to reduce the electrical power requirements. Also methods for minimizing additional components and utilizing conventionally existing components (e.g. sensors) are discussed in this paper. Another characteristic is that smaller displacement engines (e.g. I4, I3) have larger cranking torque difference characteristics than larger engines (e.g. I6, I8).
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