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Technical Paper

Vegetable Oil Hydrogenating Process for Automotive Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2030
From the viewpoint of primary energy diversification and CO2 reduction, interests of using Biomass Fuel are rising. Some kinds of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester), which are obtained from oil fats like vegetable oil using transesterification reaction with methanol, are getting Palm Oilpular for bio-diesel recently. In this study, we have conducted many experiments of palm oil hydrogenations using our pilot plants, and checked the reactivity and the pattern of product yields. As a result, we figured out that the hydrocarbon oil equivalent to the conventional diesel fuel can be obtained from vegetable oils in good yield under mild hydrogenation conditions. Moreover, as a result of various evaluations for the hydrogenated palm oil (oxidation stability, lowtemperature flow property, LCA, etc.), we found that the hydrogenated palm oil by our technology has performances almost equivalent to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RON on SI Engine Thermal Efficiency

2007-07-23
2007-01-2007
Recently, global warming and energy security have received significant attention. Thus an improvement of the vehicle fuel economy is strongly required. For engines, one effective way is to improve the engine thermal efficiency. Raising compression ratio [1] or turbo charging technologies have potential to achieve high thermal efficiency. However knock does not allow the high thermal efficiency. Knock depends on the fuel composition and the pressure and temperature history of unburnt end-gas [2-3]. For fuels, RON is well known for describing the anti knock quality. High RON fuels have high anti knock quality and result in higher thermal efficiency. This paper investigates the impact of high RON fuels on the thermal efficiency by using high compression ratio engine, turbo charged engine, and lean boosted engine [4]. Finally, it is shown that the high thermal efficiency can be approached with high RON gasoline and ethanol.
Journal Article

The Impact of Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Composition on a Euro V HSDI Engine with Advanced DPNR Emissions Control

2009-06-15
2009-01-1903
In an effort to reduce CO2 emissions, governments are increasingly mandating the use of various levels of biofuels. While this is strongly supported in principle within the energy and transportation industries, the impact of these mandates on the transport stock’s CO2 emissions and overall operating efficiency has yet to be fully explored. This paper provides information on studies to assess biodiesel influences and effects on engine performance, driveability, emissions and fuel consumption on state-of-the-art Euro IV compliant Toyota Avensis D4-D vehicles with DPNR aftertreatment systems. Two fuel matrices (Phases 1 & 2) were designed to look at the impact of fuel composition on vehicle operation using a wide range of critical parameters such as cetane number, density, distillation and biofuel (FAME) level and type, which can be found within the current global range of Diesel fuel qualities.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Ethanol Fuel on a Spark Ignition Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3380
Since ethanol is a renewable source of energy and it contributes to lower CO2 emissions, ethanol produced from biomass is expected to increase in use as an alternative fuel. It is recognized that for spark ignition (SI) engines ethanol has advantages of high octane number and high combustion speed and has a disadvantage of difficult startability at low temperature. This paper investigates the influence of ethanol fuel on SI engine performance, thermal efficiency, and emissions. The combustion characteristics under cold engine conditions are also examined. Ethanol has high anti-knock quality due to its high octane number, and high latent heat of evaporation, which decreases the compressed gas temperature during the compression stroke. In addition to the effect of latent heat of evaporation, the difference of combustion products compared with gasoline further decreases combustion temperature, thereby reducing cooling heat loss.
Technical Paper

Study of Mileage-Related Formaldehyde Emission from Methanol Fueled Vehicles

1990-02-01
900705
In order to determine the main factors causing the mileage-related increase in formaldehyde emission from methanol-fueled vehicles, mileage was accumulated on three types of vehicle, each of which had a different air-fuel calibration system. From exhaust emission data obtained during and after the mileage accumulation, it was found that lean burn operation resulted in by far the highest formaldehyde emission increase. An investigation into the reason for the rise in engine-out formaldehyde emission revealed that deposits in the combustion chamber emanating from the lubricating oil promotes formaldehyde formation. Furthermore it was learnt that an increase in engine-out NOx emissions promotes partial oxidation of unburned methanol in the catalyst, leading to a significant increase in catalyst-out formaldehyde emission.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends: Impact of Fuels Physical-Chemical Properties over Ageing During Storage and Accelerated Oxidation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1930
Current and future engine technologies and fuels are mutually dependent. The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to deterioration in performance of injectors, fuel filters and engines as a result of insoluble deposit formation. The present work aimed to study the impact of Diesel/biodiesel blends formulation (biodiesel feedstock and content) and temperature on the oxidation stability based on total acid number (TAN). The biofuels used in the fuel matrix were: rapeseed, soy and palm methyl esters (RME, SME and PME respectively). The Diesel/biodiesel blends were made with 0%v/v, 5%v/v, 10% v/v and 20%v/v of biodiesel blended with additive-free new Diesel. The oxidation stability of Diesel/biodiesel blends was to evaluate during 6 months fuels storage, under 20°C and 40°C, and fuels severe oxidation into a reactor vessel to better understand the parameters leading to fuel oxidation on-board.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2008-10-06
2008-01-2494
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
Technical Paper

High Concentration Ethanol Effect on SI Engine Cold Startability

2007-07-23
2007-01-2036
From the energy security and CO2 discharge reduction point of view, much attention has been paid to the usage of biofuel, ethanol, as an alternative source of energy in the transportation industry. Yet, the major drawback in applying highly concentrated ethanol in the spark ignited internal combustion engines is cold start instability. This is due to the characteristics of ethanol, large latent heat required to vaporize. This paper investigates necessary conditions for the engine cold start, using highly concentrated ethanol. Tests performed with varieties of ethanol fuel, a relationship between cold startability lower temperature limit and reid vapor pressure was observed. A method to boost the vaporization, intake valve timing control is introduced to obtain high compression peak temperature.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Ethanol Applications to A Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-2037
Feasibility studies concerning ethanol utilization in direct injection gasoline engines were conducted in order to clarify the effects of ethanol on engine performance, exhaust emissions and injector deposit formation. The investigation results indicate that E100 (100% ethanol fuel) can improve full load engine performance around whole engine speed range in a high compression ratio engine (ε=13:1), compared to that of a base compression ratio engine (ε=11.5:1) operated on a premium gasoline. This was caused by the volumetric efficiency (ηv) improvement and engine knock suppression in the high compression ratio engine. On the other hand, HC emissions remarkably increased under lower engine speeds at a full load condition. This phenomenon suggests that poor combustion occurred due to insufficient mixing of air and E100 fuel under these conditions, in which the amount of ethanol injected was too large and fluidity in the cylinder was weak.
Technical Paper

Effects of RME30 on Exhaust Emissions and Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2499
Considering the popularity of biodiesel fuels for diesel vehicles, the impacts of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), which is the most utilized biodiesel fuel in Europe, on tailpipe emissions from a diesel passenger car was investigated. In this study, 30% RME blended diesel fuel (RME30) was used and the comparison of tailpipe emissions between RME30 and a reference diesel fuel was conducted using a test vehicle with the latest engine and aftertreatment system. The results of the investigation reveal that RME30 generates about the same amount of NOx in tailpipe emissions as diesel fuel, and less HC, CO, and PM. These phenomena occurred in spite of attaching catalysts to the test vehicle, and therefore suggesting that the NOx conversion efficiency of the catalysts for RME30 is equal to that for diesel fuel. The injection rate for RME30 was the same as that for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Colorimetric Sensor for Facile Identification of Methanol-Containing Gasoline

2017-03-28
2017-01-1288
Despite the fact that methanol is toxic to human health and causes serious damage to automobile engines and fuel system components, methanol-containing gasoline is becoming popular in some areas. Methanol demonstrates similar chemical properties to ethanol (which is already established as an additive to gasoline), so that it is difficult to identify methanol-containing gasoline without performing proper chemical analysis. In this study, we report a low-cost, portable, and easy-to-operate sensor that selectively changes color in response to methanol contained in gasoline. The colorimetric sensor will be useful for automobile users to avoid methanol-containing gasoline upon refueling.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Stability and its Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0860
The effects of biodiesel oxidation stability on diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) behavior were investigated using newly developed test rig and methodology. On the test rig, biodiesel blend fuels were circulated through a fuel tank and a common rail injection system. Fuel injected from typical diesel injectors was returned into the fuel tank to enhance the speed of fuel degradation. The results showed that injector deposits could be reproduced on a test rig. It was observed that injector body temperature increase accelerates the degradation of fuel and therefore gives earlier FIE failure. Fuel renewal could partially restore the injection quantity after complete failure at low injection pressure, thus showing a potential cleaning effect on injector deposits when refueling a car.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends

2010-10-25
2010-01-2116
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
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