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Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs. The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota Inline 4 Cylinder 1.8L ESTEC 2ZR-FXE Gasoline Engine for Hybrid Car

The engine in the new fourth generation Prius carries over the same basic structure as the 2ZR-FXE used in the third generation and incorporates various refinements to enhance fuel efficiency. Called the ESTEC 2ZR-FXE, the new engine incorporates various fuel efficient technologies to improve combustion characteristics, knocking, and heat management, while also reducing friction. As a result of this meticulous approach to enhancing fuel efficiency, the new engine is the first gasoline engine in the world to achieve a maximum thermal efficiency of 40%. This paper describes the fuel efficient technologies incorporated into this engine.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RON on SI Engine Thermal Efficiency

Recently, global warming and energy security have received significant attention. Thus an improvement of the vehicle fuel economy is strongly required. For engines, one effective way is to improve the engine thermal efficiency. Raising compression ratio [1] or turbo charging technologies have potential to achieve high thermal efficiency. However knock does not allow the high thermal efficiency. Knock depends on the fuel composition and the pressure and temperature history of unburnt end-gas [2-3]. For fuels, RON is well known for describing the anti knock quality. High RON fuels have high anti knock quality and result in higher thermal efficiency. This paper investigates the impact of high RON fuels on the thermal efficiency by using high compression ratio engine, turbo charged engine, and lean boosted engine [4]. Finally, it is shown that the high thermal efficiency can be approached with high RON gasoline and ethanol.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Metallic Additives on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as an octane-enhancing metallic additive for unleaded gasoline which can prevent engine knock by proactive reaction with the hydrocarbon free radicals before starting the auto-ignition of hydrocarbons. However it has been pointed out that MMT causes automotive catalysts clogging and spark plug severely fouling. Therefore, many countries have fuel standards that prohibit or limit the usage of MMT. Nevertheless, some countries still use MMT as there are no restrictions imposed by fuel standards. As mentioned in several papers, metallic additives of engine oil such as calcium cause an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in turbocharged spark ignition engines. In contrast, the effect of metallic additives of gasoline such as MMT on LSPI has not been studied.
Technical Paper

Research of Knocking Deterioration due to Accumulated Carbon Deposits on Piston Surfaces

In recent years, fuel economy regulation is expanding to reduce CO2 emission and energy saving in world wide. To achieve the regulation, automaker efforts to develop electrification technology and improve engine thermal efficiency with high compression ratio. On the other hand, variety of fuels such as a reformed gasoline and bio fuel share is growing rapidly to utilize of fossil fuel by legal arrangements. With the spread of reformed gasoline, there are some risk of increased carbon deposit and accumulated on piston surface, due to heavy aromatic and olefin in the fuel. In combustion point of view, knocking should be deteriorated by synergy effect both accumulated carbon deposit and said high compression ratio. Furthermore, knocking deterioration do not occur in regularly, especially they occur in low-middle engine load. However, this mechanism is not clear.
Technical Paper

Octane Appetite Studies in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engines

The anti-knock or octane quality of a fuel depends on the fuel composition as well as on the engine design and operating conditions. The true octane quality of practical fuels is defined by the Octane Index, OI = (1-K)RON + KMON where K is a constant for a given operating condition and depends only on the pressure and temperature variation in the engine (it is not a property of the fuel). RON and MON are the Research and Motor Octane numbers respectively, of the fuel. OI is the octane number of the primary reference fuel (PRF) with the same knocking behaviour at the given condition. In this work a wide range of fuels of different RON and MON were tested in prototype direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines with compression ratios of 11 and 12.5 at different speeds up to 6000 RPM. Knock Limited Spark Advance (KLSA) was used to characterize the anti-knock quality of the fuel. Experiments were also done using two cars with DISI engines equipped with knock sensor systems.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction Technology for Low Viscosity Engine Oil Compatible with LSPI Prevention Performance

Increasing numbers of vehicles equipped with downsized, turbocharged engines have been introduced seeking for better fuel economy. LSPI (low speed pre-ignition), which can damage engine hardware, is a potential risk of the engines. We reported that engine oil formulation affects frequency of LSPI events, and formulating magnesium detergents into oil is a promising option to prevent LSPI events. From the viewpoint of achieving better fuel economy by engine oil, lowering viscosity is being required. However, it causes reduced oil film thickness and will expand boundary lubrication condition regions in some engine parts. Hence, a technology to reduce friction under boundary lubrication becomes important.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Ethanol Applications to A Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Feasibility studies concerning ethanol utilization in direct injection gasoline engines were conducted in order to clarify the effects of ethanol on engine performance, exhaust emissions and injector deposit formation. The investigation results indicate that E100 (100% ethanol fuel) can improve full load engine performance around whole engine speed range in a high compression ratio engine (ε=13:1), compared to that of a base compression ratio engine (ε=11.5:1) operated on a premium gasoline. This was caused by the volumetric efficiency (ηv) improvement and engine knock suppression in the high compression ratio engine. On the other hand, HC emissions remarkably increased under lower engine speeds at a full load condition. This phenomenon suggests that poor combustion occurred due to insufficient mixing of air and E100 fuel under these conditions, in which the amount of ethanol injected was too large and fluidity in the cylinder was weak.
Technical Paper

Engine Thermal Control for Improving the Engine Thermal Efficiency and Anti-Knocking Quality

In recent years, improving the engine thermal efficiency is strongly required. To enhance the engine thermal efficiency, it is important to improve the engine anti-knock quality. Technologies for modifying engine cooling have been developed to improve anti-knocking quality of engines. However, excessive improvement of engine cooling leads to an increase in cooling heat loss. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the temperature of each part of the engine such as engine head-cylinder, cylinder-liner, and piston on knocking and cooling heat loss. In this paper, computer aided engineering (CAE) is used to predict the effects of each part of the engine on engine knocking and cooling heat loss. Firstly, the amount of heat energy that air-fuel mixture receives from engine cylinder-head, cylinder-liner, and piston is calculated during the intake stroke. The result shows that the cylinder-liner contributes largest heat energy to air-fuel mixture, especially the exhaust side.
Technical Paper

Effects of High Turbulence Flow on Knock Characteristics

In enhancing the performance of automotive internal combustion engines, increasing the compression ratio offers an effective means of improving engine thermal efficiency. If the compression ratio is increased, however, the problem of knock occurs in exchange for improvement in engine thermal efficiency. In other words, an increase in compression ratio causes in-cylinder compressive end gas temperature to rise, resulting in the occurrence of knock. This in turn requires ignition timing retard to combat the knock. This trade-off makes it difficult to achieve the theoretical maximum combustion efficiency. In this paper, we clarify the feasibility of suppressing the occurrence of knock by increasing the burn rate. Specifically, we increase the burn rate by injecting high-pressure air directly into the combustion chamber, causing highly turbulent in-cylinder flow.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Effects of fuel distillation characteristics and cetane number on premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion were investigated for the purpose of reducing NOx and PM emissions from a direct injection diesel engine. The test engine had a hole type injection nozzle for conventional diesel combustion at high load operation. A low compression ratio and cooled EGR were applied to the test engine in order to reduce the compression temperature for avoiding pre-ignition. The investigation results show that, in the case of ignition control by EGR, a light fuel with lower distillation characteristics had an advantage of reducing smoke at higher loads. This means that high volatility fuel is effective in promoting lean mixture formation of fuel and air during the ignition delay. Moreover, lowering the cetane number was effective in reducing NOx emissions by suppression of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Components on Engine Abnormal Combustion

These days, improving fuel economy is essential from the view point of energy security and global warming. Engine technologies, such as high compression engines and turbocharged engines, have already been introduced into the market. Furthermore new technologies like lean boosted engines are now being developed. However, these engines are susceptible to abnormal combustion like knocking, auto-ignition, and pre-ignition at low or high engine speeds, because these engines are run at higher combustion pressures and temperatures compared to naturally aspirated engines. It is well known that fuels have some affect on combustion characteristics. This paper examines the effects of fuel characteristics on various types of abnormal combustion. The results show that temperature and pressure have a direct impact on abnormal combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Mechanical Pilot Injection Device for Automotive Diesel Engines

It is well known that pilot injection is an effective method of reducing diesel knock noise during idling, but no actual system has as yet been commercially produced. With the objective of developing a practicable pilot injection device, simulations were conducted of various simple mechanisms in order to determine the best specifications and analyze the fuel injection characteristics. Based on these results, a chamber expansion type pilot injection device, which enables the injection pump pressure chamber volume to be increased at a given moment during the fuel compression stroke, has been developed and has been found to remarkably decrease knock noise during cold idling. An investigation into the effects of this device on output power, exhaust emissions, cold startability and durability revealed that it is eminently suitable for practical application.