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Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Road Structure Estimation by Fusion of a Digital Road Map and an Image

Estimating distant road structure will be an important factor in determining the extent of danger of detected obstacles. There are some methods to estimate the road structure by an image from an onboard camera. However, the results are not sufficient due to the vertical curvature of roads and the limitation of image resolution. In this paper, a new method is proposed to estimate the 3-D road structure by fusion of a 2-D digital road map and an image from a camera. The effect of this method is confirmed by using synthesized data and actual data.
Technical Paper

Study of Future Engine Oil (First Report): Future Engine Oil Scenario

In recent years, problems such as global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and air pollution caused by emissions are emerging on a global scale. These problems call for efforts directed toward the development of fuel-efficient engines and exhaust gas reduction measures. As a solution to these issues, performance improvements should be achieved on the oil that lubricates the sliding sections of engines. This report points to features required of future engine oil-such as contribution to fuel consumption, minimized adverse effects on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and improved reliability achieved by sludge reduction-and discusses the significance of these features. For engine oil to contribution of engine oil to lower fuel consumption, we examined the effects of reduced oil viscosity on friction using gasoline and diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Stratification Features of Swirl Nozzle Sprays and Slit Nozzle Spray in DI Gasoline Combustion

The stratification feature of DI gasoline combustion was studied by using a constant volume combustion vessel. An index of stratification degree, defined as volumetric burning velocity, has been proposed based on the thermodynamic analysis of the indicated pressure data. The burning feature analysis using this stratification degree and the fuel vapor concentration measurement using He-Ne laser ray absorption method were carried out for the swirl nozzle spray with 90° cone angle and the slit nozzle spray with 60° fan angle. Ambient pressure and ambient temperature were changed from atmospheric condition to 0.5∼0.6 MPa and 465 K, respectively. Air Swirl with swirl ratio of 0∼1.0 were added for the 90° swirl nozzle spray. Single component fuels with different volatility and self-ignitability from each other were used besides gasoline fuel. The major findings are as follows. High ambient temperature improves stratification degree due to the enhanced fuel vaporization and vapor diffusion.
Technical Paper

Stereo Vision System for Advanced Vehicle Safety System

In this paper, we will introduce a stereo vision system developed as a sensor for a vehicle's front monitor. This system consists of three parts; namely, a stereo camera that collects video images of the forward view of the vehicle, a stereo ECU that processes its output image, and a near-infrared floodlight for illuminating the front at night. We were able to develop an obstacle detection function for the Pre-Crash Safety System and also a traffic lane detection function for a Lane-Keeping Assist System. Especially in regard to the obstacle detection function, we were able to achieve real-time processing of the disparity image calculations that had formerly required long processing times by using two types of recently developed LSIs.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Diesel Particulate Matter by Oil Consumption Improvement Utilizing Radioisotope Tracer Techniques

A study was conducted to reduce unburned oil fractions in diesel particulate matter (PM) by improving oil consumption. A method utilizing radioisotope 14C was developed to measure the unburned oil fractions separately for the four paths by which oil is consumed: valve stem seals, piston rings, PCV system, turbocharger. The conversion ratio of oil consumption to PM was calculated by comparing the unburned oil emission rates with oil consumption rates, which were obtained by the use of the 35S tracer method. The result in an experimental diesel engine shows the highest conversion ratio for the oil leaking through the valve stem seals. The modifications to the engine were thereby focused on reducing the leakage of the stem seals. This stem seal modification, along with piston ring improvements, reduced oil consumption, resulting in the unburned oil fractions in PM being effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Optical Analysis and Modelling of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions

This study models short circuits and blow-outs of spark channels. The short circuit model assumes that a spark channel is short-circuited between two arbitrary locations when the electric potential difference between the two locations exceeds the voltage which enables electrical insulation breakage in-between. The threshold voltage can be raised by increasing the distance between the two locations and decreasing the discharge current. Discharge current, in this model, represents the influence of both the spread and the number of electrically charged particles, i.e., electrons and positive ions, distributed near the two locations. Meanwhile, the blow-out model assumes that a strong flow diffuses electrons and positive ions in the spark channel, and consequently the discharge blows out.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Air-Fuel Mixture Distribution in a Gasoline Engine Using LIEF Technique

The laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique, currently used to observe mixture formation in a diesel engine, has been applied to a spark ignition (SI) engine and a new equivalence ratio calibration technique has been developed in order that two-dimensional measurements of the equivalence ratio may be made in an operating engine. Spectrally separated fluorescent images of liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions were obtained by adding new exciplex-forming dopants to the gasoline fuel. Dual light sheets from an excimer laser were introduced into one of the cylinders of a 4-valve lean-burn engine, and 2-D images of the mixture formation were recorded at pre-set crank angles during the induction and compression strokes by an image-intensified camera equipped with the appropriate filter.
Journal Article

Injection Nozzle Coking Mechanism in Common-rail Diesel Engine

The hole diameter of injection nozzles in diesel engines has become smaller and the nozzle coking could potentially cause injection characteristics and emissions to deteriorate. In this research, engine tests with zinc-added fuels, deposit analyses, laboratory tests and numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the deposit formation mechanisms. In the initial phase of deposit formation, lower zinc carboxylate formed close to the nozzle hole outlet by reactions between zinc in the fuel and lower carboxylic acid in the combustion gas. In the subsequent growth phase, the main component changed to zinc carbonate close to nozzle hole inlet by reactions with CO₂ in the combustion gas. Metal components and combustion gases are essential elements in the composition of these deposits. One way of removing these deposits is to utilize cavitations inside the nozzle holes.
Technical Paper

Hybrid System Development for High-Performance All Wheel Drive Vehicle

The original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) was installed in the Prius and was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car. Since then, THS has been continuously improved. In 2003 THS-II (marketed as Hybrid Synergy Drive [HSD]), was installed in a new larger Prius. In 2006 HSD was installed in a Rear Wheel Drive Vehicle: the LEXUS GS450h. This system achieved both 4.5-liter class power performance and compact class fuel economy with outstanding emissions performance. In 2007, this system is expanded to a mechanical all-wheel-drive(AWD) in the LEXUS LS600hL(with new V8 engine). This paper will explain this hybrid system which achieved both V12 class power performance and mid-size class fuel economy, while meeting the most stringent emission standard SULEV as a full-size vehicle.
Technical Paper

Flow Visualization and Measurement of Torque Converter Stator Blades Using a Laser Sheet Lighting Method and a Laser Doppler Velocimeter

A new experimental apparatus to visualize and measure the flow in the stator of a torque converter is proposed. A one-sided coaxial shaft constructed of an input shaft and an output shaft provides an open space inside the stator shaft for measurement. Through the window on the stator shaft, the flow in the stator can be directly observed. We also improved the laser sheet lighting method into the blade passage by using a mirror inside the blade. By visualizing the flow with the laser sheet lighting method, we found that the flow around the leading edge has different separation regions along the blade span. Furthermore, by using a laser doppler velocimeter, velocity vectors and turbulence intensities were measured in three stator blades of different thicknesses with the same camber line. The thickness of the stator blades affects the flow patterns.
Journal Article

Emissions Reduction Potential of Extremely High Boost and High EGR Rate for an HSDI Diesel Engine and the Reduction Mechanisms of Exhaust Emissions

The effects of an increasing boost pressure, a high EGR rate and a high injection pressure on exhaust emissions from an HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engine were examined. The mechanisms were then investigated with both in-cylinder observations and 3DCFD coupled with ϕT-map analysis. Under a high-load condition, increasing the charging efficiency combined with a high injection pressure and a high EGR rate is an effective way to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously, which realized an ultra low NOx of 16ppm at 1.7MPa of IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure). The flame temperature with low NOx and low soot emissions is decreased by 260K from that with conventional emissions. Also, the distribution of the fuel-air mixture plot on a ϕT-map is moved away from the NOx and soot formation peninsula, compared to the conventional emissions case.
Technical Paper

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Model of Connecting Rod Big End Bearings; Comparison with Experiments by Diesel Engine

The EHD lubrication model of connecting rod big end bearings is compared with experiments using an automotive diesel engine. The axial load and the bending moment near the middle of rod length were derived from strain measurements and compared with the theoretical results based on engine dynamics. Although oscillation appeared on bending moment at 5000 rpm, the theoretical load almost agreed with the experiment. The EHD lubrication theory and the experiments were compared by the histories of clearances and the journal center orbits in the bearing. The theoretical results agreed well with the experimental one. The deformation of the bearing appeared both in the theory and in the experiment at 3000 rpm or above; these results confirm the necessity of the EHD lubrication theory.
Technical Paper

Development of Estimation Technique for Flow Induced Vibration on External Rearview Mirror

A technique has been developed that uses unsteady flow simulation to evaluate mirror vibration quantitatively at the drawing stage. Studies made in actual driving tests of the contributions of different inputs to mirror vibration have confirmed that the contribution of fluid force is large, so a visualization of the structure of the external rearview mirror wake was done using PIV. The results made it clear that the vibration imparted to the mirror surface by air flow excites the natural vibration mode of the mirror surface, thereby causing the mirror to vibrate. Mirror vibration performance was evaluated by means of unsteady flow simulation using the moment PSD as a substitute characteristic. (The moment PSD was obtained by a frequency analysis of the changes over time in the moment generated in the mirror surface by the fluid force.) The results obtained through CFD show a high degree of correlation with those obtained in actual driving tests.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalyst with Improved NOx Conversion

Countries and regions around the world are tightening emissions regulations in reaction to the increasing awareness of environmental conservation. At the same time, growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. This catalyst incorporates rhodium (Rh) clusters with a particle size of several nanometers, and stabilized CeO2-ZrO2 solid-solution (CZ) with a pyrochlore crystal structure as a high-volume oxygen storage capacity (OSC) material with a slow O2 storage rate.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Cause of Exhaust Smoke and Its Reduction Methods in an HSDI Diesel Engine Under High-Speed and High-Load Conditions

The cause of the exhaust smoke and its reduction methods in a small DI Diesel engine with a small-orifice-diameter nozzle and common rail F.I.E. were investigated under high-speed and high-load condition, using both in-cylinder observations and Three-dimensional numerical analyses. The following points were clarified during this study. At these conditions, fuel sprays are easily pushed away by a strong swirl, and immediately flow out to the squish area by a strong reverse squish. Therefore, the air in the cavity is not effectively used. Suppressing the airflow in a piston cavity, using such ideas as enlarging the piston cavity diameter or reducing the port swirl ratio, decreases the excessive outflow of the fuel-air mixture into the squish area, and allows the full use of air in the whole cavity. Hence, exhaust smoke is reduced.
Journal Article

Backward Flow of Hot Burned Gas Surrounding High-Pressure Diesel Spray Flame from Multi-hole Nozzle

The backward flow of the hot burned gas surrounding a diesel flame was found to be one of the factors dominating the set-off length (also called the lift-off length), that is, the distance from a nozzle exit into which a diffusion flame cannot intrude. In the combustion chamber of an actual diesel engine, the entrainment of the surrounding gas into a spray jet from a multi-hole nozzle is restricted by the walls and adjacent spray jets, which induces the backward flow of the surrounding gas. A new momentum theory to calculate the backward flow velocity was established by extending Wakuri's momentum theory. Shadowgraph imaging in an optical engine successfully visualized the backward flow of the hot burned gas.
Technical Paper

A Study on Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine - Expanding the Operating Range and Combustion Mode Switching

Natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines require high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas. In the first study, the natural gas fueled HCCI combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was achieved without an intake air heater. The effects of the combustion chamber configuration, turbocharging, and external EGR were investigated for expanding the operating range. As a result, it was cleared that the combination of internal / external EGR and turbocharging is effective for expanding the HCCI operational range toward high loads. Meanwhile, the HCCI combustion characteristics at high engine speeds were unstable because of an insufficient reaction time for auto-ignition. Although the engine operation with a richer air-fuel ratio was effective for improving the combustion stability, the combustion noise (CN) was at an unacceptable level.