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Technical Paper

Variation in Nerve Fiber Strain in Brain Tissue Subjected to Uniaxial Stretch

2007-10-29
2007-22-0006
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most frequent type of closed head injury involved in vehicular accidents, and is characterized by structural and functional damage of nerve fibers in the white matter that may be caused by their overstretch. Because nerve fibers in the white matter have an undulated network-like structure embedded in the neuroglia and extracellular matrix, and are expected to be much stiffer than other components, the strain in the nerve fiber is not necessarily equal to that in the white matter. In this study, the authors have measured strain of the nerve fibers running in various directions in porcine brain tissue subjected to uniaxial stretch and compared them with global strain (tissue strain). The nerve fiber strain had a close correlation with their direction, and was smaller than surrounding global strain.
Technical Paper

Twenty-Year Review of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites at Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

2007-04-16
2007-01-1017
More than twenty years have passed since we invented polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCN), in which only a few wt.-% of silicate is randomly and homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix. When molded, these nanocomposites show superior properties compared to pristine polymers such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, heat distortion temperature, gas barrier property, and so on. The number of papers on PCN has increased rapidly in recent years, reaching over 500 only in 2005. As the pioneers of the new technology, we will review its history highlighting our works. Epoch-making events of PCN are as follows: In 1985, The first PCN, nylon 6-clay hybrid (NCH), was invented. In 1987, NCH was first presented at the ACS Fall Meetings. In 1989, NCH was presented at the MRS Fall Meetings, firing PCN. In 1989, Toyota launched cars equipped with a NCH part. In 1996, Clay was found to cause a memory effect in liquid crystals.
Technical Paper

The Development Tool for the Real-Time Fuzzy Control System on a Vehicle

1992-09-01
922128
Recently, there has been many practical applications of fuzzy control. Applications of fuzzy control to vehicles are more effective. However, they require more input and output channels as well as higher speed inference ability than typical applications require. We have developed a tool for developing a fuzzy control system available on a vehicle. The tool consists of a fuzzy inference board and a laptop personal computer with a color display executing a user interface software. The fuzzy inference board can be directly connected with an electronic control unit for vehicle control, and has 10 input channels, 5 output channels and 256 rules. The user interface software mainly provides two functions: 1) The screen editor for membership functions and rules. 2) The real-time monitor for input, output, and grade values when fuzzy inference is executed.
Technical Paper

Study of Future Engine Oil (First Report): Future Engine Oil Scenario

2007-07-23
2007-01-1977
In recent years, problems such as global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and air pollution caused by emissions are emerging on a global scale. These problems call for efforts directed toward the development of fuel-efficient engines and exhaust gas reduction measures. As a solution to these issues, performance improvements should be achieved on the oil that lubricates the sliding sections of engines. This report points to features required of future engine oil-such as contribution to fuel consumption, minimized adverse effects on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and improved reliability achieved by sludge reduction-and discusses the significance of these features. For engine oil to contribution of engine oil to lower fuel consumption, we examined the effects of reduced oil viscosity on friction using gasoline and diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology of Surface Material for Interior Trims

2000-03-06
2000-01-0741
Two-layered surface materials composed of a thermoplastic olefin elastomer (TPO) skin and a cross-linked polypropylene (PP)foam are increasingly replacing the conventional PVC skin/PVC foam for interior trims. In the past, recycled material obtained by melt-blending TPO skin and PP foam could not be re-used for TPO skin because of its appearance. A new recycling technology using the reaction biaxial extruder with a reaction agent can decompose the network structure of PP foam. As a result, PP foam is dispersed into TPO uniformly and the recycled material has properties and an appearance similar to virgin TPO. These new properties may allow the application of the recycled material as a surface material.
Technical Paper

Real Time Oil Concentration Measurement in Automotive Air Conditioning by Ultraviolet Light Absorption

1991-02-01
910222
A method of real time oil concentration measurment has been developed utilizing the effect of ultraviolet light absorption by lubricating oil in the liquid refrigerant line of an automotive air conditioning system. The light wavelengths from 200nm to 370nm are selected based on the ultraviolet light absorption sensitivity of the oils and refrigerants (CFC12,HFC134a). The effects of temperature,pressure and contaminantion on the absorbance of light are investigated in order to determine how these parameters affect the concentration measurement. The density changes of refrigerants are then compensated in the calculation for the oil concentration. The uncertainties of the overall concentration measurement are less than ±0.1 weight percent at 1 weight percent concentration. A transient oil circulation of the automotive air conditioner is measured by using this method.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Optical Analysis and Modelling of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1728
This study models short circuits and blow-outs of spark channels. The short circuit model assumes that a spark channel is short-circuited between two arbitrary locations when the electric potential difference between the two locations exceeds the voltage which enables electrical insulation breakage in-between. The threshold voltage can be raised by increasing the distance between the two locations and decreasing the discharge current. Discharge current, in this model, represents the influence of both the spread and the number of electrically charged particles, i.e., electrons and positive ions, distributed near the two locations. Meanwhile, the blow-out model assumes that a strong flow diffuses electrons and positive ions in the spark channel, and consequently the discharge blows out.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Fuel Behavior in a Port-Injection Gasoline Engine

1997-02-24
970878
Three-dimensional numerical analysis of fuel liquid and mixture behavior in a port-injection gasoline engine is assessed by comparing calculations with measurements. The fuel mass distributed in the intake port and cylinder is measured using an engine with hydraulic valve and gas sampling system. The experimental results show that about half of the fuel mass per injection enters the cylinder, and the rest stays in the port. The difference of the mass fraction of injected fuel directly entering the cylinder is small between the cases of single pulse injection and serial injection. Therefore, three-dimensional calculation presupposing single pulse injection has difficulty in predicting the in-cylinder mixture formation process, although it can analyze the amount of fuel wetting the port wall. The calculations are performed for a port-injection engine, and the differences of fuel behavior with respect to swirl control valve opening and wall temperature are discussed.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction Behavior on Catalysts With Non-Thermal Plasma in Simulated Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

2004-06-08
2004-01-1833
NOx reduction activity in an oxidizing exhaust gas was significantly improved by discharging non-thermal plasma and catalysts (plasma assisted catalysis). We investigated effective catalyst for plasma assisted catalysis in view of hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction(HC-SCR). Plasma assist was effective for γ-alumina and alkali or alkaline earth metals loaded zeolite and γ-alumina showed the highest NOx conversion among these catalysts. On the other hand, Plasma assist was not effective for Cu-ZSM-5 and Pt loaded catalyst. The NOx conversion for the plasma assisted γ-alumina decreased by formation of a deposit on the catalyst below 400°C. It is shown that indium loading on γ-alumina improved the NOx reduction activity and suppressed the degradation of the NOx reduction activity at 300°C with plasma assist.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Surface Treatment for Car Air Conditioners

1998-02-23
980284
In order to improve corrosion resistance and thermal efficiency of the air conditioner evaporator, a coating which provides hydrophilicity was formed over the chromate coating. In addition, there has been greater demand for air with fewer smells. This report describes the cause of “dusty odor” and a method to reduce it. The dusty odor is caused by a little corrosion of the substrate aluminum. Hydrophilic coating film dissolves little by little in condensed water, and substrate aluminum is exposed. A method to prevent the odor was developed by forming a coating giving hydrophilicity and durability to the evaporator surface.
Technical Paper

Low Friction Property and its Mechanism of DLC-Si Films Under Dry Sliding Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1015
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are of significant interest for the automobile field, because they possess the potential to improve friction properties under various sliding conditions. Among the various DLC films, the authors focus on silicon-containing DLC (DLC-Si) films, which exhibit extremely low friction coefficient under dry sliding conditions in an ambient air atmosphere. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of silicon content in DLC-Si films on the friction property of the films, and to clarify the low friction mechanism of the films. The friction test was conducted under dry sliding conditions. It was found that the films have an exceedingly low friction coefficient (about 0.05) ranging in silicon content from 4 at% to 17 at%. In order to examine the low friction mechanism of the films, surface analyses were done on the wear surface of DLC-Si films slid against bearing steel.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Oxidation Stability of Engine Oils Using Laboratory Scale Simulator

1995-10-01
952528
The purposes of this paper are to develop a new laboratory oxidation stability testing method and to clarify factors relative to the viscosity increase of engine oil. Polymerized products, obtained from the oil after a JASO M333-93 engine test, were found to consist mainly of carboxyl, nitrate and nitro compounds and to increase the oil viscosity. A good similarity between the JASO M333-93 test and the laboratory simulation test was found for the polymerized products. The products were obtained not by heating oil only in air but by heating oil while supplying a synthetic blowby gas consisting of fuel pyrolysis products, NO, SO2 and air. The laboratory test has also revealed that the viscosity increase depends on oil quality, organic Fe content and hydrocarbon composition in the fuel. Moreover, it has been found that blowby gas and organic Fe accelerate ZnDTP consumption and that aromatics concentration in the fuel correlates with the viscosity increase of oil.
Journal Article

Injection Nozzle Coking Mechanism in Common-rail Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1818
The hole diameter of injection nozzles in diesel engines has become smaller and the nozzle coking could potentially cause injection characteristics and emissions to deteriorate. In this research, engine tests with zinc-added fuels, deposit analyses, laboratory tests and numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the deposit formation mechanisms. In the initial phase of deposit formation, lower zinc carboxylate formed close to the nozzle hole outlet by reactions between zinc in the fuel and lower carboxylic acid in the combustion gas. In the subsequent growth phase, the main component changed to zinc carbonate close to nozzle hole inlet by reactions with CO₂ in the combustion gas. Metal components and combustion gases are essential elements in the composition of these deposits. One way of removing these deposits is to utilize cavitations inside the nozzle holes.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Oil Viscosity on Piston Ring and Cam Face Wear

1993-10-01
932782
The influence of engine oil viscosity on the wear of piston rings and cam faces has been investigated by fired engine tests using a radioisotope (RI) tracer technique. High-temperature and high-shear-rate (HTHS; 150°C, 1O6 s-1) viscosities of the experimental oils prepared are 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 and 3.1 mPa•s. At an oil temperature of 90°C the wear of piston rings and cam faces did not increase, even if the HTHS viscosity was lowered down to 2.2 mPa•s. However, both piston rings and cam faces exhibited an increase in wear below 2.4 mPa•s at 130°C. It was also recognized that valve train wear did not significantly increase with reducing viscosity in the motored engine tests at a temperature of 50°C. From these test results, it was suggested that the oil with the HTHS viscosity of 2.6 mPa•s sufficiently demonstrates the antiwear performance equivalent to that with around 3.0 mPa•s for application to piston rings and cam faces.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

2007-04-16
2007-01-1056
In order to enhance the catalytic performance of the NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst (NSR Catalyst), the sulfur tolerance of the NSR catalyst was improved by developing new support and NOx storage materials. The support material was developed by nano-particle mixing of ZrO2-TiO2 and Al2O3 in order to increase the Al2O3-TiO2 interface and to prevent the ZrO2-TiO2 phase from sintering. A Ba-Ti oxide composite material was also developed as a new NOx storage material containing highly dispersed Ba. It was confirmed that the sulfur tolerance and activity of the developed NSR catalyst are superior to that of the conventional one.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Bioplastics

2003-03-03
2003-01-1124
We studied the adoption of plastics derived from plants (bioplastics) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for automotive parts in order to contribute to suppressing the increase in CO, emissions. For this application. major improvements of heat and impact resistance are needed. As a method to improve heat resistance, we developed PLA combined with clay of high heat resistance. As a result. we succeeded in synthesizing a PLA-clay nanocomposite using 18(OH)2-Mont. In-mold crystallization of PLA-clay nanocomposite lead to the great suppression of storage modulus decrease at high temperature. which in turn improved the heat resistance of PLA.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Particulate Emissions from D.I. Engine - Relationship among Diesel Fuel, Exhaust Gas and Particulates

1997-05-01
971605
The compositions of hydrocarbons in diesel fuel, exhaust gas and particulates were analyzed and the relationships among them were determined. It was found that the compositions of the hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas were almost the same as that of the fuel, and that the hydrocarbons in the particulates corresponded to their heavy fractions. When the engine condition was fixed, both the soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble fraction ( ISF) showed positive correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, where HC denotes the hydrocarbon emission and R310 denotes the backend fraction, as measured by the fraction of fuel boiling above 310°C. On the other hand, when the engine condition was varied, ISF had negative correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, while SOF showed positive correlation coefficients.
Technical Paper

Fretting Fatigue Analysis in Rapidly Solidified Powder Aluminum Alloy

1998-02-23
980698
Fretting fatigue mechanism of rapidly solidified powder aluminum alloy has been studied by model tests and analysis using fracture mechanics. The factors which influences upon fretting scar formation and fatigue crack propagation were the main concerns in the present work. In order to investigate the mechanism of fretting scar formation in detail, fretting wear tests in which small amplitude oscillatory movement occurred in the contact region were carried out. Test results showed that the size of fretting scar increased with increasing tangential force coefficient. Characteristics of fretting fatigue crack propagation were analyzed using fracture mechanics. The fatigue limits under fretting conditions were estimated by connecting the applied stress intensity factor range calculated from applied cyclic stress and tangential force, with the threshold stress intensity factor range of small crack.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

1993-10-01
932840
According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0181
In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
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