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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Wear Analysis of DLC Coating in Oil Containing Mo-DTC

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating has excellent properties like high hardness and low friction. So it has attracted considerable attention in recent years as a low-friction coating material. However, some DLC coatings display increased wear in oil containing Mo-DTC (Molybdenum-dithiocarbamates). Wear analyses of sliding surface after block-on-ring tests were conducted suggest that the decomposition product from Mo-DTC, MoO3, reacts with active sites in the DLC to promote the wear of DLC.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Passenger Car Using a Combination of Rankine Bottoming Cycle and Evaporative Engine Cooling System

Rankine bottoming system, which operates on waste heat of engine cooling, has been developped to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. Evaporative engine cooling system is utilized to obtain high thermal efficiency and simplicity of the Rankine bottoming system. The bottoming system uses HCFC123 as a working fluid, and scroll expander as a power conversion unit. The results indicate that energy recovery, which depends on the ambient temperature, is almost 3 percent of engine output power at ambient temperature of 25°C.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Vision of Mobile Information Services

As wireless technologies evolve, in-vehicle information services are becoming more and more essential to vehicle users. In contrast with information services in the home, in-vehicle information services emphasize the use of information to make driving more comfortable, rather than simply displaying information during driving. In particular, traffic information is, unlike other kinds of information, effective in getting to a destination and therefore, must be real-time to be useful. In Japan, car navigation systems have a large market penetration; dynamic route guidance systems (DRGS) operating in concert with navigation systems have been popular since 1995. This paper discusses mobile information services including DRGS. The focus is on the Japanese market where navigation technologies are the most advanced.
Technical Paper

Visibility Requirements for Automobile CRT Displays - Color, Contrast and Luminance

Display devices are required to have some fundamental functions which are brightness & gradation, colorfullness, resolution & sharpness, response time, and suitable size of the picture. Since the CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) is superior to the other display devices in these requirements, it can offer much information efficiently and effectively. Their visibility should not be evaluated only on the basis of some standards for office automation systems. From the point of view of human factors, visibility investigations of the CRTs for automobiles are examined. In this paper the relationship between the chromaticity difference and the luminance contrast for drivers to read the picture easily, and the luminance of the background in the CRTs for drivers not to be dazzled in the nighttime driving are clarified.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Drive Line and Suspension Using Finite Element Models

Finite element aodels have been developed to analyze drive line and suspension vibration. For the analysis of booming noise, we have addressed the optimization of the differential gear carrier mounting system by using a virtual system and realization of it considering many constraints. To reduce the differential whine noise, a simulation method considering the transmitting error of the differential gear was applied. And we have approached for the subtle arrangements of many structural resonances with detail research of the drive line and suspension. For the reduction of road noise, we adopted the approach of shifting the node of the rear suspension member mode.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Control Valve for Active Suspension

An active suspension system controls a spring constant and an attenuater in real time using a power supply. Generally, the hydraulic pressures are used for transmitting the power. Therefore, a highly reliable and inexpensive control system has been required for a commercial use. This has been achieved by developing a mechanical fluid servo valve which comprises a simple combination of a solenoid valve and a spool valve. The technical problem of the valve vibrations has been solved through the numerical analyses, the fluid flow visualization tests and the vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Transient Response Based on Human Sensitivity

Grip feeling is an important facet in vehicle dynamics evaluation from a driver satisfaction and enjoyment standpoint. To improve grip feeling, we analyzed the subjective comments from test driver's about grip feeling and an evaluated human sensitivity to lateral motion. As a result, we found that drivers evaluate transient grip feeling according to the magnitude of lateral jerk. Next, we analyzed what vehicle parameters affect lateral jerk by using theoretical equations. As a result, we found that cornering power is an important parameter, especially the cornering power of rear tires as they can be create larger lateral jerk than can front tires.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Control in Limit Cornering by Active Brake

Improvement of vehicle dynamics in limit cornering have been studied. Simulations and tests have verified that vehicle stability and course trace performance in limit cornering have been improved by active brake control of each wheel. The controler manages vehicle yaw moment utilizing difference braking force between left and right wheels, and vehicle deceleration utilizing sum of braking forces of all wheels.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Behavior Under the Influence of Steering Dynamics by Means of Low Frequency Torque Input

This paper describes and confirms the effect of low frequency sinusoidal steering torque input on vehicle response and steering behavior using vehicle test, analysis with equations of motion and simulations. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input is quite different to the vehicle response by low frequency steer angle input. Steering system parameters such as moment of inertia, damping, friction and power steering assist torque have an effect on low frequency torque input steering system dynamics. The dynamic response of the vehicle with electric power steering (EPS) system, which has a big moment of inertia with electric motor and friction of the reduction gear, is affected by the steering system dynamic properties. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input test has capability for contribute to vehicle evaluation such as steer feel or maneuverability of handling.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acceleration Sensor Applied with Magnetic Fluid

In vehicle control systems such as ABS (anti-lock braking system) or active suspension control, sensors for detecting longitudinal and/or lateral acceleration of vehicles (acceleration of up to ± 9.8 m/s2, with frequency range of DC to 20 Hz) is necessary. The principle of acceleration detection for this sensor is as follows. A permanent magnet levitates steadily in magnetic fluid by the action of the magnetic field generated by the magnet itself. The magnet moves by the application of acceleration on the mass of the magnet. This change of position of the magnet is detected by the Hall element, and thus acceleration is measured as an electrical signal. This sensor consists of only magnetic fluid, a permanent magnet, housing, a pair of Hall elements and an electronic circuit.
Technical Paper

Variable Induction Systems to Improve Volumetric Efficiency at Low and/or Medium Engine Speeds

A new method of estimating volumetric efficiency has been developed to facilitate parameter studies necessary for designing a Variable Induction System (VIS). The proposed method is based on the application of frequency domain to solve linearized one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations. This method enabled CPU time to be reduced to 1/200 of that required for non-linear calculation in the time domain. Various VISs having sufficient flexibility to ensure practical uses are introduced. Finally, VISs are classified into four groups depending on the pulsation mode. Two examples of VISs are described and tested. Both are found capable of considerably increasing volumetric efficiency at low and medium engine speeds without loss of maximum power.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Validation Test Result Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

In recent years, many various energy sources have been investigated as replacements for traditional automotive fossil fuels to help reduce CO2 emissions, respond to instabilities in the supply of fossil fuels, and reduce emissions of air pollutants in urban areas. Toyota Motor Corporation considers the plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), which can efficiently use electricity supplied from infrastructure, to be the most practical current solution to these issues. For this reason, Toyota began sales of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid in 2012 in the U.S., Europe and Japan. This is the first PHV to be mass-produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. Prior to this, in December 2009, Toyota sold 650 PHVs through lease programs for validation testing in the U.S., Europe and Japan. Additional 30 PHVs were introduced in China in March 2011 for the same objective.
Technical Paper

Using the Modal Response of Window Vibrations to Validate SEA Wind Noise Models

The SEA model of wind noise requires the quantification of both the acoustic as well as the turbulent flow contributions to the exterior pressure. The acoustic pressure is difficult to measure because it is usually much lower in amplitude than the turbulent pressure. However, the coupling of the acoustic pressure to the surface vibration is usually much stronger than the turbulent pressure, especially in the acoustic coincidence frequency range. The coupling is determined by the spatial matching between the pressure and the vibration which can be described by the wavenumber spectra. This paper uses measured vibration modes of a vehicle window to determine the coupling to both acoustic and turbulent pressure fields and compares these to the results from an SEA model. The interior acoustic intensity radiating from the window during road tests is also used to validate the results.
Technical Paper

Two-hole Injector Improves Transient Performance and Exhaust, Emissions of 4-valve Engines

One of the main causes of the inadequate transient response of a 4-valve engine was established as being partition wall-wetting. The possibility of resolving this problem by improving fuel atomization was investigated. An air-mix type injector, although producing finer droplets with more uniform distribution, was not found effective in improving transient response. The development of a two-hole injector is described. This new injector produces twin sprays which are directed into the siamese intake ports without wetting the partition wall. As a consequence, the lean A/F ratio excursion is reduced, torque stumble is eliminated and the conversion efficiency of a three-way catalyst is increased.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Vehicle Acceleration Sensor Applied with Magnetic Fluid

Sensors which can detect minimal acceleration such as ± 9.8 m/sec2 in longitudinal and lateral direction of a vehicle, for DC to 20 Hz range, are required to control ABS (anti-lock braking system) or suspension system. To fulfill these requirements, we have developed a one-dimensional acceleration sensor, using magnetic fluid, to control the vehicle. In 1992, we submitted a paper on this sensor at the SAE International Congress and Exposition. Based on this one-dimensional acceleration sensor, we have developed an acceleration sensor which can detect two dimensional acceleration using a single inertia mass. This sensor is compact and can detect minimal acceleration with high accuracy. Spring and damping functions were obtained via the adoption of magnetic fluid, as in the case of the former one-dimensional acceleration sensor. This sensor can sustain mechanical shocks.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.