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Technical Paper

Reduction of Diesel Particulate Matter by Oil Consumption Improvement Utilizing Radioisotope Tracer Techniques

A study was conducted to reduce unburned oil fractions in diesel particulate matter (PM) by improving oil consumption. A method utilizing radioisotope 14C was developed to measure the unburned oil fractions separately for the four paths by which oil is consumed: valve stem seals, piston rings, PCV system, turbocharger. The conversion ratio of oil consumption to PM was calculated by comparing the unburned oil emission rates with oil consumption rates, which were obtained by the use of the 35S tracer method. The result in an experimental diesel engine shows the highest conversion ratio for the oil leaking through the valve stem seals. The modifications to the engine were thereby focused on reducing the leakage of the stem seals. This stem seal modification, along with piston ring improvements, reduced oil consumption, resulting in the unburned oil fractions in PM being effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

MMC All Aluminum Cylinder Block for High Power SI Engines

An all aluminum cylinder block with a Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) cylinder bore was developed which made it possible to re-design the base engine for high performance with a bore-to-bore distance as narrow as 5.5mm. The cylinder block is an open deck type and the MMC preform consists of alumina-silica fibers and mulite particles. A laminar flow die cast process was selected to ensure defect-free MMC bore quality. To insure good lubrication, electrochemical machining was applied to the bore surface. By use of radioisotope(RI) measurements, MMC reinforcement was optimized for wear characteristics. Particular attention was paid to use of fuels with high sulfur levels.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Oil Viscosity on Piston Ring and Cam Face Wear

The influence of engine oil viscosity on the wear of piston rings and cam faces has been investigated by fired engine tests using a radioisotope (RI) tracer technique. High-temperature and high-shear-rate (HTHS; 150°C, 1O6 s-1) viscosities of the experimental oils prepared are 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 and 3.1 mPa•s. At an oil temperature of 90°C the wear of piston rings and cam faces did not increase, even if the HTHS viscosity was lowered down to 2.2 mPa•s. However, both piston rings and cam faces exhibited an increase in wear below 2.4 mPa•s at 130°C. It was also recognized that valve train wear did not significantly increase with reducing viscosity in the motored engine tests at a temperature of 50°C. From these test results, it was suggested that the oil with the HTHS viscosity of 2.6 mPa•s sufficiently demonstrates the antiwear performance equivalent to that with around 3.0 mPa•s for application to piston rings and cam faces.