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Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Timing Belt

This paper describes an analysis of the rise in timing belt temperature occuring under high engine speed operation that was made to establish the cause of heat deterioration of the belt materials. Surface temperatures of the belt were accurately measured by correcting thermo-vision detected radiations to eliminate environmental radiation. The temperature profile of a belt cross-section was obtained by a specially developed thermo-couple device. The experimental results indicated that heat generated by the belt contributes significantly to the temperature rise and that the primary cause of the heat generation is bending hysteresis of the belt cords. In addition, a description is made of a method of calculating the rate of heat generation in the belt. In this simulation method, the energy dissipated as heat is calculated from the bending strains and loss moduli of the belt materials. Calculated results were found to agree well with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Study of Divided Converter Catalytic System Satisfying Quick Warm up and High Heat Resistance

Catalyst specifications and converter layouts were studied to identify the high conversion performance under various in-use driving conditions, high mileage intervals and extended life cycle. The effects of volumes, configuration, selection and loading distribution of precious metals, additive components and substrate type for catalyst were studied on engine dynamometers and vehicle tests to optimize a catalyst converter system. Moreover, model gas experiments were conducted to analyze deterioration mechanisms and conversion characteristics of catalysts. As a result, the concept of a divided catalyst converter system, which provides separate functions for a close-coupled and an under-floor catalyst, was found to be effective for the future exhaust system. For reducing HC emissions, the close-coupled catalyst should warm up quickly and resist a high temperature. The under-floor catalyst, located at a rather low temperature position, is durable and maintains high NOx conversion.
Technical Paper

New Technology for Reducing the Power Consumption of Electrically Heated Catalysts

A new heating strategy for electrically heated catalysts has been developed which reduces power consumption while achieving the desired hydrocarbon conversion. The relationship between catalyst volume and power consumption is presented. Observations of catalytic reactions by a thermoviewer camera and mathematical simulations are used to optimize the heating pattern. Significant reductions in power consumption, while maintaining conversion efficiency, are reported by heating only the front face of the catalyst. However, prior to mass production additional work is required to improve durability, and reliability and to resolve manufacturing issues.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation and HC Emissions of a 4-Valve Engine with Port Fuel Injection During Cold Starting and Warm-up

In order to reduce tail-pipe hydrocarbon emissions from SI gasoline engines, rapid catalyst warm-up and improvement of catalyst conversion efficiency are important. There are many reports which have been published by manufacturers and research institutes on this issue. For further reduction of tail-pipe hydrocarbon emissions, it is necessary to reduce engine-out hydrocarbon emissions and to improve after treatment, during the time the catalyst is not activated. This paper quantitatively analyzed the fuel amount of intake port and cylinder wall-wetting, burned fuel and engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, cycle by cycle in firing condition, utilizing a specially designed analytical engine. The effect of mixture preparation and fuel properties for engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, during the cold engine start and warm-up period, were quantitatively clarified.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in Engines by Using a Two-Color High Speed Shutter TV Camera System

A two-color high speed shutter TV camera system has been developed as a new sensing device for measuring the flame temperature in engines. The TV camera system can measure the radiant intensities of high temperature substances accurately and rapidly. And, the two-dimensional temperature distribution can be easily calculated from the radiant intensities by using an image processor. This system is applicable to measurement of flame temperatures in diesel and gasoline engines. The relation between the progress of combustion phenomena and the measured temperature distribution is clearly explained. It is confirmed that the system is effective for measurement of the flame temperature distribution in engines.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Compositions and Ozone Forming Potential During Cold Start

A newly-developed time resolved exhaust gas analysis system was utilized in this study. The hydrocarbon compositions upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter were investigated during cold start and warm up of the Federal Test Procedure(FTP), with three fuels of different aromatic contents. Although engine-out hydrocarbon emissions had high concentrations right after cold start, the specific reactivity was low. This can be explained by the selective adsorption of the high boiling point components which had a high Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) in the intake manifold and engine-oil films. Thereafter, the high boiling point components were desorbed rapidly and consequently specific reactivity increased. Hydrocarbon adsorption of high boiling point components and hydrocarbon conversion of low boiling point components occurred simultaneously on the catalyst during warm up.
Technical Paper

A New Method to Analyze Fuel Behavior in a Spark Ignition Engine

In SI engines with port injection system, fuel behavior both in the intake port and in the cylinder has significant influence on the transient A/F characteristics and HC emissions [1]. Therefore, to improve the engine performance, it is very important to understand fuel behavior in the intake port and in the cylinder [2, 3]. This paper describes the following three unique methods to analyze fuel behavior in port injected SI engines and some test results. (1) Observation of fuel behavior in the intake port, using a transparent intake air tube and a strobe synchronized TV-photographic system. (2) Observation of fuel behavior in the cylinder, using a glass cylinder and fluorescent fuel. (3) Measurement of fuel wall wetting in the intake port and in the cylinder, using the engine with electronically controlled hydraulically driven in-take/exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Dimensional Numerical Method for Predicting Warm-Up Characteristic of Automobile Catalytic Converter Systems

A multi-dimensional numerical method for predicting the warm-up characteristic of automobile catalytic converter systems was developed to effectively design catalytic converter systems which achieve low tail pipe emissions with satisfactory packagebility. The features of the method are; (1) consideration of the governing phenomena such as gas flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions (2) capability of predicting warm-up characteristic for not only the catalytic converters but also the system as a whole during emission test modes such as the USA LA-4 mode. The description of the method is presented. The experimental verifications of the method were conducted to assure the accuracy of it. The effect of design parameters such as electrically heated catalyst (EHC), high loading of noble metal and thin honeycomb wall on warm-up characteristic of the catalyst are analyzed in the paper.