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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

2011-08-30
2011-01-2062
In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Control Valve for Active Suspension

1992-02-01
920272
An active suspension system controls a spring constant and an attenuater in real time using a power supply. Generally, the hydraulic pressures are used for transmitting the power. Therefore, a highly reliable and inexpensive control system has been required for a commercial use. This has been achieved by developing a mechanical fluid servo valve which comprises a simple combination of a solenoid valve and a spool valve. The technical problem of the valve vibrations has been solved through the numerical analyses, the fluid flow visualization tests and the vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acceleration Sensor Applied with Magnetic Fluid

1992-02-01
920475
In vehicle control systems such as ABS (anti-lock braking system) or active suspension control, sensors for detecting longitudinal and/or lateral acceleration of vehicles (acceleration of up to ± 9.8 m/s2, with frequency range of DC to 20 Hz) is necessary. The principle of acceleration detection for this sensor is as follows. A permanent magnet levitates steadily in magnetic fluid by the action of the magnetic field generated by the magnet itself. The magnet moves by the application of acceleration on the mass of the magnet. This change of position of the magnet is detected by the Hall element, and thus acceleration is measured as an electrical signal. This sensor consists of only magnetic fluid, a permanent magnet, housing, a pair of Hall elements and an electronic circuit.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

1985-11-11
852203
In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Using the Modal Response of Window Vibrations to Validate SEA Wind Noise Models

2017-06-05
2017-01-1807
The SEA model of wind noise requires the quantification of both the acoustic as well as the turbulent flow contributions to the exterior pressure. The acoustic pressure is difficult to measure because it is usually much lower in amplitude than the turbulent pressure. However, the coupling of the acoustic pressure to the surface vibration is usually much stronger than the turbulent pressure, especially in the acoustic coincidence frequency range. The coupling is determined by the spatial matching between the pressure and the vibration which can be described by the wavenumber spectra. This paper uses measured vibration modes of a vehicle window to determine the coupling to both acoustic and turbulent pressure fields and compares these to the results from an SEA model. The interior acoustic intensity radiating from the window during road tests is also used to validate the results.
Technical Paper

Toyota's U340E Four-speed Automatic Transaxle

2000-03-06
2000-01-1147
TOYOTA has designed a new family of automatic transaxles named the “Super ECT”. These are the next generation of automatic transaxles (AT), for FWD passenger cars. The aim of this development was compactness, lightness, and improvements in fuel economy and shift quality. There are several kinds of transaxles included in this group to match each of the FWD passenger cars and engines. The “U340E,” a four-speed automatic transaxle, has been developed as one member of this family. This is one of the most compact and light AT in its class, and has greatly contributed to the fuel economy of vehicles. This paper will give an overview of the “Super ECT” and the major features and performance of the U340E.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Single-Chip Microcomputer Based Engine and Transmission Control System

1985-02-01
850289
Toyota succeeded in the fall of 1984 in manufacturing a complex engine and transmission control system using a newly developed single-chip microcomputer. This microcomputer, equipped with an 8K-byte ROM ( Read Only Memory) and a 256-byte RAM ( Random Access Memory), a powerful real time processing function, and a high-speed optimum instruction set, is better suited for automobiles. Application of the latest CMOS technology has enabled lower power consumption and improved noise immunity. The new system, which includes a new function; the electronic spark advance with knock control in addition to the conventional sophisticated system, has greatly improved the performance and driveability of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension (TEMS) System for the 1983 Soarer

1984-02-01
840341
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION had developed the world's first microprocessor controlled suspension system, Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension (TEMS), which is now being offered on the Toyota Soarer from Feb. '83. This system consists of sensors, switches, electronic control unit (ECU), actuators and shock absorbers. TEMS uses a microprocessor to adjust the damping forces of the front and rear shock absorbers. As a result, suspension can be tuned in two stages (hard and soft cushioning) and driver can choose three control modes (AUTO, SPORT, NORMAL). In AUTO mode, the TEMS system has achieved attitude controls (i.e. squat control, roll control and nosedive control). The TEMS system achieved a 15 - 30% decrease of squat, a 20 - 30% decrease of roll angle, a 10 - 30% decrease of nose-dive and a 30 - 40% decrease of shift-squat.
Technical Paper

Toyota Electronic Modulated Air Suspension for the 1986 SOARER

1987-02-01
870541
Advanced electronic control system of suspension and air springs are combined with the double wishbone type suspension. Damping force, spring rate and vehicle height can be automatically con-trolled among three levels in response to the vehicle running conditions.
Technical Paper

Toyota AA80E 8-Speed Automatic Transmission with Novel Powertrain Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1311
Toyota has developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for RWD automobiles. The transmission will first be used in the all-new Lexus LS460. In addition, a novel control system has been developed to maximize the predictability, response, efficiency, and initial quality of the powertrain while utilizing the high number of gear steps.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Slip Control System

1995-02-01
950672
The torque converter clutch slip control system adopted in the Toyota A541E automatic transaxle engages the torque converter clutch by applying a steady slip speed to prevent the torque fluctuation of the engine to be transmitted to the drivetrain while enhancing the transmission efficiency of the torque converter. The feedback controller of the slip speed adopts the H∞ (H-Infinity) control theory which offers a high level of robust stability, and is the first of its kind in a mass produced component. As a result, a highly accurate and reliable system has been realized, contributing to large-scale fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Journal Article

Thermal Flow Analysis of Hybrid Transaxle Surface Using Newly-Developed Heat Flux Measurement Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-1652
This research developed a new measurement technology for thermal analysis of the heat radiation from a hybrid transaxle case surface to the air and improved the heat radiation performance. This heat flux measurement technology provides the method to measure heat flux without wiring of sensors. The method does not have effects of wiring on the temperature field and the flow field unlike the conventional methods. Therefore, multipoint measurement of heat flux on the case surface was enabled, and the distribution of heat flux was quantified. To measure heat flux, thermal resistances made of plastic plates were attached to the case surface and the infrared thermography was used for the temperature measurement. The preliminary examination was performed to confirm the accuracy of the thermal evaluation through heat flux measurement. The oil in the transaxle was heated and the amount of heat radiation from the case surface was measured.
Technical Paper

The “Lexus” Traction Control (TRAC) System

1990-02-01
900212
One of the innovations for the Lexus LS400 is the development of a traction control system (TRAC system). The TRAC system suppresses the spinning of the driven wheels, which occurs easily on slippery roads during excessive acceleration, and it improves the acceleration performance and the stability of the car. The TRAC system controls the engine sub-throttle angle and the brake hydraulic pressure for the driven wheels in the same way as the traction control system for the 1987 Toyota Crown. But, acceleration performance and stability of Lexus LS400 is better than Crown as a result of good wheel spinning control by additional improvements of the throttle and brake control methods. Especially as the TRAC system controls the brake hydraulic pressure individually for left and right wheel, the car acceleration performance on split-μ surfaces is improved notably.
Technical Paper

The World's First Transverse 8-Speed Automatic Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-1274
We have developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission for transverse FWD/4WD vehicles. The aim of this new automatic transmission was to achieve world-class fuel economy while offering both smooth gear shift and sporty shift feeling suitable for luxury cars. This has been accomplished using wide spread gear ratio, outstanding low drag components and highly efficient hydraulic control system. In addition, we have achieved the compactness similar to current 6-speed automatic transmission by adopting new gear train and compact clutch layout. In this paper, the detail of this automatic transmission is introduced.
Technical Paper

The Oil Flow Measuring Method in Engine Lubrication

1999-10-25
1999-01-3467
We have developed a method by which the oil flow rate can be measured by using a hot-wire sensor that could be installed in the passages of actual engine lubricant oil. This measuring method proves to have a ±5% accuracy and a 40kHz response that enables ‘real time’ function. Thus, observation of (1) the effect of bearing clearance, and (2) the fluctuating mechanism of the oil flow per 1 degree crank angle from the point of engine start-up to 6000r/min and full load can be achieved, and the timing and quantity of intermittent oil-jet from the oil hole in connecting rod were ascertained.
Technical Paper

The Humidity Control System Applied to Reduce Ventilation Heat Loss of HVAC Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0134
Vehicles have been more required to save energy against the background of the tendency of ecology. As the result of improving efficiency of internal combustion engines and adoption of electric power train, heat loss from engine coolant, which is used to heat the cabin, decreases and consequently additional energy may be consumed to maintain thermal comfort in the passenger compartment in winter. This paper is concerned with the humidity control system that realizes reduction of ventilation heat loss by controlling recirculation rate of the HVAC system by using highly accurate humidity sensor to evaluate risk of fogging on the windshield. As the results of the control, fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles decreases and maximum range of electric vehicles increases.
Technical Paper

The High-Speed In-Vehicle Network of Integrated Control System for Vehicle Dynamics

1991-02-01
910463
This paper describes the preliminary development of an on-board integration network for vehicle dynamics. The underlying philosophy is explained and the basic requirements are set forth. A design conforming to these requirements is presented and the experiments conducted to optimise the physical layer are described. An original token passing protocol is proposed for the access method and evaluated in comparison with the contention method by means of a specially devised simulation system.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0506
Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.
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