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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Passenger Car Using a Combination of Rankine Bottoming Cycle and Evaporative Engine Cooling System

Rankine bottoming system, which operates on waste heat of engine cooling, has been developped to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. Evaporative engine cooling system is utilized to obtain high thermal efficiency and simplicity of the Rankine bottoming system. The bottoming system uses HCFC123 as a working fluid, and scroll expander as a power conversion unit. The results indicate that energy recovery, which depends on the ambient temperature, is almost 3 percent of engine output power at ambient temperature of 25°C.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Behavior Under the Influence of Steering Dynamics by Means of Low Frequency Torque Input

This paper describes and confirms the effect of low frequency sinusoidal steering torque input on vehicle response and steering behavior using vehicle test, analysis with equations of motion and simulations. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input is quite different to the vehicle response by low frequency steer angle input. Steering system parameters such as moment of inertia, damping, friction and power steering assist torque have an effect on low frequency torque input steering system dynamics. The dynamic response of the vehicle with electric power steering (EPS) system, which has a big moment of inertia with electric motor and friction of the reduction gear, is affected by the steering system dynamic properties. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input test has capability for contribute to vehicle evaluation such as steer feel or maneuverability of handling.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Using the Modal Response of Window Vibrations to Validate SEA Wind Noise Models

The SEA model of wind noise requires the quantification of both the acoustic as well as the turbulent flow contributions to the exterior pressure. The acoustic pressure is difficult to measure because it is usually much lower in amplitude than the turbulent pressure. However, the coupling of the acoustic pressure to the surface vibration is usually much stronger than the turbulent pressure, especially in the acoustic coincidence frequency range. The coupling is determined by the spatial matching between the pressure and the vibration which can be described by the wavenumber spectra. This paper uses measured vibration modes of a vehicle window to determine the coupling to both acoustic and turbulent pressure fields and compares these to the results from an SEA model. The interior acoustic intensity radiating from the window during road tests is also used to validate the results.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Integrated Drive Power Control System

Toyota has developed a new system, which uses integrated control of powertrain by PowerTrain Management (PTM), in order to improve driving comfort and reliability. This system is currently in use on Lexus's new LS460. This system is composed of 4 parts: a generation part, a mediating part, a modification part and a distribution part. In each part, processes are based on drive power and torque. In the generation part, requests from a programmed model driver, Driving Support Computer and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) are generated and expressed by drive power. In the mediating part, most suitable vehicle drive power was selected among the requests. In the modification part, the selected request is modified using a programmed powertrain model, which considers internal combustion engine condition and powertrain response and transmission's tolerance. In the distribution part, optimized engine torque and gear ratio are processed.
Technical Paper

Toyota New Compact Five-Speed Automatic Transmission for RWD Passenger Cars

A new compact five-speed automatic transmission (A650E) has been developed for front engine rear wheel drive cars. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving fuel consumption, power performance, engine noise reduction during highway cruising and smooth acceleration by employing a wide range of gearing and close gear ratios. Generally a five-speed automatic transmission is larger than a four-speed, because of additional friction elements and gears. This can result in a change in the floor panel of the car body. However, by removing a one-way clutch for second gear and employing a unique gear-train layout, this transmission has the same circumference and length as the conventional four-speed automatic transmission (A340E)(1).1 In order to reduce first or second gear noise, gear specification and supporting structures of planetary gears have been optimized by FEM analysis.
Technical Paper

Toyota Lean Combustion System - The Third Generation System

The third generation four valve lean combustion engine controlled by newly designed combustion pressure sensor has been developed. This combustion sensor composed of a metal diaphragm and a thin silicone layer formed on devitron piece detects the combustion pressure in the No.1 cylinder. Comparing with the lean mixture sensor equipped in the first and second generation lean combustion engine, the lean misfire limit was detected directly with this sensor, and the lean operation range was expanded, which realized lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. The output torque fluctuation was minimized by precisely compensating the fuel supplied to individual cylinder based on the crank angle sensor signal. Separated dual intake ports, one with the swirl control valve and the other with helical port shape was designed and a twin spray injection nozzle was equipped between those ports. The swirl ratio was lowered from 2.2 to 1.7.
Technical Paper

Toyota Central Injection (Ci) System for Lean Combustion and High Transient Response

Lean mixture operation and high transient response has been accomplished by the introduction of newly designed Central Injection (Ci) system. This paper describes the effects of Ci design variables on its performance. Lean mixture operation has been attained by optimizing the injection interval, injection timing and fuel spray angle in order to improve the cylinder to cylinder air-fuel ratio distribution. Both air-fuel distribution and transient engine response are affected by the fuel spray angle. Widening the fuel spray angle improves the air-fuel distribution but worsen the transient engine response. This inconsistency has been solved by off-setting the injector away from the center axis of the throttle body and optimizing the fuel spray angle.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Journal Article

Thermal Flow Analysis of Hybrid Transaxle Surface Using Newly-Developed Heat Flux Measurement Method

This research developed a new measurement technology for thermal analysis of the heat radiation from a hybrid transaxle case surface to the air and improved the heat radiation performance. This heat flux measurement technology provides the method to measure heat flux without wiring of sensors. The method does not have effects of wiring on the temperature field and the flow field unlike the conventional methods. Therefore, multipoint measurement of heat flux on the case surface was enabled, and the distribution of heat flux was quantified. To measure heat flux, thermal resistances made of plastic plates were attached to the case surface and the infrared thermography was used for the temperature measurement. The preliminary examination was performed to confirm the accuracy of the thermal evaluation through heat flux measurement. The oil in the transaxle was heated and the amount of heat radiation from the case surface was measured.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction for Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold

This paper describes the application of a life prediction method for stainless steel exhaust manifolds. Examination of the exhaust manifold cracks indicated that many of the failures could be attributed to out-of-phase thermal fatigue due to compressive strains that occur at high temperatures. Therefore, the plastic strain range was used as the crack initiation criteria. In addition, the comparison of the calculated thermal fatigue stress-strain hysteresis to the experimental hysteresis made it clear that it was essential to use the stress-strain data that was obtained through tensile and compression testing by keeping the test specimens at the maximum temperature of the thermal fatigue test mode. A finite element crack prediction method was developed using the aforementioned material data and good results were obtained.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of the Exhaust Line Focused on the Cool-Down Process

At the engine restart, when the temperature of the catalytic converter is low, additional fuel consumption would be required to warm up the catalyst for controlling exhaust emission.The aim of this study is to find a thermally optimal way to reduce fuel consumption for the catalyst warm up at the engine restart, by improving the thermal retention of the catalytic converter in the cool down process after the previous trip. To make analysis of the thermal flow around the catalytic converter, a 2-D thermal flow model was constructed using the thermal network method. This model simulates the following processes: 1) heat conduction between the substrate and the stainless steel case, 2) heat convection between the stainless steel case and the ambient air, 3) heat convection between the substrate and the gas inside the substrate, 4) heat generation due to chemical reactions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Timing Belt

This paper describes an analysis of the rise in timing belt temperature occuring under high engine speed operation that was made to establish the cause of heat deterioration of the belt materials. Surface temperatures of the belt were accurately measured by correcting thermo-vision detected radiations to eliminate environmental radiation. The temperature profile of a belt cross-section was obtained by a specially developed thermo-couple device. The experimental results indicated that heat generated by the belt contributes significantly to the temperature rise and that the primary cause of the heat generation is bending hysteresis of the belt cords. In addition, a description is made of a method of calculating the rate of heat generation in the belt. In this simulation method, the energy dissipated as heat is calculated from the bending strains and loss moduli of the belt materials. Calculated results were found to agree well with experimental results.
Technical Paper

The World's First Transverse 8-Speed Automatic Transmission

We have developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission for transverse FWD/4WD vehicles. The aim of this new automatic transmission was to achieve world-class fuel economy while offering both smooth gear shift and sporty shift feeling suitable for luxury cars. This has been accomplished using wide spread gear ratio, outstanding low drag components and highly efficient hydraulic control system. In addition, we have achieved the compactness similar to current 6-speed automatic transmission by adopting new gear train and compact clutch layout. In this paper, the detail of this automatic transmission is introduced.
Technical Paper

The Oil Flow Measuring Method in Engine Lubrication

We have developed a method by which the oil flow rate can be measured by using a hot-wire sensor that could be installed in the passages of actual engine lubricant oil. This measuring method proves to have a ±5% accuracy and a 40kHz response that enables ‘real time’ function. Thus, observation of (1) the effect of bearing clearance, and (2) the fluctuating mechanism of the oil flow per 1 degree crank angle from the point of engine start-up to 6000r/min and full load can be achieved, and the timing and quantity of intermittent oil-jet from the oil hole in connecting rod were ascertained.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota Inline 4-Cylinder 2.5L Gasoline Engine

In order to adapt to energy security and the changes of global-scale environment, further improvement of fuel economy and adaptation to each country’s severer exhaust gas emission regulation are required in an automotive engine. To achieve higher power performance with lower fuel consumption, the engine’s basic internal design such as an engine block and cylinder head were changed and the combustion speed was dramatically increased. Consequently, stroke-bore ratio and valve layout were optimized. Also, both flow coefficient and intake tumble ratio port were improved by adopting a laser cladded valve seat. In addition, several new technologies were adopted. The Atkinson cycle using a new Electrical VVT (Variable Valve Timing) and new combustion technology adopting new multi-hole type Direct fuel Injector (DI) improved engine power and fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota 1.2-Liter ESTEC Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Toyota Motor Corporation is developing a series of engines belonging to its ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion) development concept. This paper describes the development of 8NR-FTS after the subsequent launch of the 2.0-liter DI Turbocharged 8AR-FTS. 8NR-FTS is a 1.2-liter inline 4-cylinder spark ignition downsized turbocharged direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. By following the same basic concepts as 8AR-FTS engine [1], the 8NR-FTS incorporates various fuel efficient technologies such as a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold, the Atkinson cycle using the center-spooled variable valve timing with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), and intensified in-cylinder turbulence to achieve high-speed combustion.
Technical Paper

The New 2.4-Liter Slant Engine, 2TZ-FE, for the Toyota Previa

This paper describes a new 2.4-liter 16-valve in-line four-cylinder engine, 2TZ-FE, which has been mounted horizontally on a new minivan, the TOYOTA PREVIA. This engine has the TOYOTA original compact 4-valve DOHC system (scissors gear mechanism), and TOYOTA's newest technologies, such as 75 deg. slant cylinder and Separated accessory Drive System. The compact configuration reduces the height of this engine to only 44Omm (17.3-inches). Engine location is under the flat floor on the midship rear-wheel-drive vehicle and allows the PREVIA to have a spacious cabin with walkthrough. Its high performance, 103kW at 500Orpm and 209Nm at 4000rpm, has been achieved through updated technologies, such as: Knock Controll System (KCS), well studied intake system and exhaust manifold which is made of stainless steel double pipe. At the same time, high reliability and quietness have been achieved for the 2TZ-FE by TOYOTA's updated technologies.