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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Validation Test Result Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

In recent years, many various energy sources have been investigated as replacements for traditional automotive fossil fuels to help reduce CO2 emissions, respond to instabilities in the supply of fossil fuels, and reduce emissions of air pollutants in urban areas. Toyota Motor Corporation considers the plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), which can efficiently use electricity supplied from infrastructure, to be the most practical current solution to these issues. For this reason, Toyota began sales of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid in 2012 in the U.S., Europe and Japan. This is the first PHV to be mass-produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. Prior to this, in December 2009, Toyota sold 650 PHVs through lease programs for validation testing in the U.S., Europe and Japan. Additional 30 PHVs were introduced in China in March 2011 for the same objective.
Technical Paper

Using the Modal Response of Window Vibrations to Validate SEA Wind Noise Models

The SEA model of wind noise requires the quantification of both the acoustic as well as the turbulent flow contributions to the exterior pressure. The acoustic pressure is difficult to measure because it is usually much lower in amplitude than the turbulent pressure. However, the coupling of the acoustic pressure to the surface vibration is usually much stronger than the turbulent pressure, especially in the acoustic coincidence frequency range. The coupling is determined by the spatial matching between the pressure and the vibration which can be described by the wavenumber spectra. This paper uses measured vibration modes of a vehicle window to determine the coupling to both acoustic and turbulent pressure fields and compares these to the results from an SEA model. The interior acoustic intensity radiating from the window during road tests is also used to validate the results.
Technical Paper

Two-hole Injector Improves Transient Performance and Exhaust, Emissions of 4-valve Engines

One of the main causes of the inadequate transient response of a 4-valve engine was established as being partition wall-wetting. The possibility of resolving this problem by improving fuel atomization was investigated. An air-mix type injector, although producing finer droplets with more uniform distribution, was not found effective in improving transient response. The development of a two-hole injector is described. This new injector produces twin sprays which are directed into the siamese intake ports without wetting the partition wall. As a consequence, the lean A/F ratio excursion is reduced, torque stumble is eliminated and the conversion efficiency of a three-way catalyst is increased.
Technical Paper

Toyota Lean Combustion System - The Third Generation System

The third generation four valve lean combustion engine controlled by newly designed combustion pressure sensor has been developed. This combustion sensor composed of a metal diaphragm and a thin silicone layer formed on devitron piece detects the combustion pressure in the No.1 cylinder. Comparing with the lean mixture sensor equipped in the first and second generation lean combustion engine, the lean misfire limit was detected directly with this sensor, and the lean operation range was expanded, which realized lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. The output torque fluctuation was minimized by precisely compensating the fuel supplied to individual cylinder based on the crank angle sensor signal. Separated dual intake ports, one with the swirl control valve and the other with helical port shape was designed and a twin spray injection nozzle was equipped between those ports. The swirl ratio was lowered from 2.2 to 1.7.
Technical Paper

Toyota Central Injection (Ci) System for Lean Combustion and High Transient Response

Lean mixture operation and high transient response has been accomplished by the introduction of newly designed Central Injection (Ci) system. This paper describes the effects of Ci design variables on its performance. Lean mixture operation has been attained by optimizing the injection interval, injection timing and fuel spray angle in order to improve the cylinder to cylinder air-fuel ratio distribution. Both air-fuel distribution and transient engine response are affected by the fuel spray angle. Widening the fuel spray angle improves the air-fuel distribution but worsen the transient engine response. This inconsistency has been solved by off-setting the injector away from the center axis of the throttle body and optimizing the fuel spray angle.
Technical Paper

Toyota Air-Mix Type Two-Hole Injector for 4-Valve Engines

An air-mix type 2-hole injector has been developed for 4-valve engines. In order to finely atomize the fuel whilst maintaining the separation of the twin sprays that assures minimal wetting of the partition between the siamese ports, the location of the air inlet passages was optimized and studies were conducted to determine the appropriate geometry of the fuel separation portion of the adapter. High speed photographs verify that the finalized adapter realizes centralized fuel flow through the splayed conduits so that the maximum air entrainment is achieved. This new injector both improves transient response and reduces HC emissions under all temperature conditions. It further enables injection timing to be retarded to the intake stroke at the same low HC level.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Journal Article

Thermal Flow Analysis of Hybrid Transaxle Surface Using Newly-Developed Heat Flux Measurement Method

This research developed a new measurement technology for thermal analysis of the heat radiation from a hybrid transaxle case surface to the air and improved the heat radiation performance. This heat flux measurement technology provides the method to measure heat flux without wiring of sensors. The method does not have effects of wiring on the temperature field and the flow field unlike the conventional methods. Therefore, multipoint measurement of heat flux on the case surface was enabled, and the distribution of heat flux was quantified. To measure heat flux, thermal resistances made of plastic plates were attached to the case surface and the infrared thermography was used for the temperature measurement. The preliminary examination was performed to confirm the accuracy of the thermal evaluation through heat flux measurement. The oil in the transaxle was heated and the amount of heat radiation from the case surface was measured.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of the Exhaust Line Focused on the Cool-Down Process

At the engine restart, when the temperature of the catalytic converter is low, additional fuel consumption would be required to warm up the catalyst for controlling exhaust emission.The aim of this study is to find a thermally optimal way to reduce fuel consumption for the catalyst warm up at the engine restart, by improving the thermal retention of the catalytic converter in the cool down process after the previous trip. To make analysis of the thermal flow around the catalytic converter, a 2-D thermal flow model was constructed using the thermal network method. This model simulates the following processes: 1) heat conduction between the substrate and the stainless steel case, 2) heat convection between the stainless steel case and the ambient air, 3) heat convection between the substrate and the gas inside the substrate, 4) heat generation due to chemical reactions.
Technical Paper

The application of VHDL-AMS multi-domain HV simulation to the power performance and the fuel economy during warming up process

In order to reduce CO2, EV and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) are effective. Those type vehicles have different power train from conventional vehicle. Those new power trains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicle with keeping same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have the issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large. The thermal energy seriously affect on the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, the power performance, the fuel economy and the effect of heat energy recovery from the exhaust gas are discussed for HV. For the power performance, the simulated acceleration time of 0-100km/h was 11.8sec and the measured vehicle time was 11.9sec. The error between simulation and actual measurement result was 1.2%. As for the fuel economy, the energy management using exhaust gas heat exchange system improved 10.3% of the fuel consumption during warming up.
Technical Paper

The World's First Transverse 8-Speed Automatic Transmission

We have developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission for transverse FWD/4WD vehicles. The aim of this new automatic transmission was to achieve world-class fuel economy while offering both smooth gear shift and sporty shift feeling suitable for luxury cars. This has been accomplished using wide spread gear ratio, outstanding low drag components and highly efficient hydraulic control system. In addition, we have achieved the compactness similar to current 6-speed automatic transmission by adopting new gear train and compact clutch layout. In this paper, the detail of this automatic transmission is introduced.
Technical Paper

The Technology to Produce Thermoplastic Elastomer Based on Waste Rubber

A new rubber recycling technology to produce a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based on ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) waste was developed. In this technology, the developed process consists of devulcanization of EPDM waste, blending of the devulcanized EPDM and polypropylene (PP), and dynamic vulcanization of the rubber component. All three are set up in as a continuous process in which the Recycled Rubber based Thermoplastic Elastomer (which is indicated as “RR-TPE” henceforth) is finally obtained. The RR-TPE exhibits elasticity and mechanical properties similar to those of commercial Thermoplastic olefins (TPO). These properties may be due to a suitably formed phase structure. Automotive parts are being developed and are going to be produced with the RR-TPE manufactured by this new technology. This technology will contribute to both protecting the environment and saving resources.
Technical Paper

The Paint Sludge Recycling

Since paint sludge, one of the industrial wastes, is tacky and generated in a large volume in mass production vehicle painting shops, handling and disposal are very difficult. We have this time succeeded in recycling this sludge as lightweight filler of vinyl chloride plastisol for coating underfloor (popularly called as under-body coating material) through thermal setting, crushing and pulverization after making it completely detackified and dewatered with centrifuging.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota Inline 4-Cylinder 2.5L Gasoline Engine

In order to adapt to energy security and the changes of global-scale environment, further improvement of fuel economy and adaptation to each country’s severer exhaust gas emission regulation are required in an automotive engine. To achieve higher power performance with lower fuel consumption, the engine’s basic internal design such as an engine block and cylinder head were changed and the combustion speed was dramatically increased. Consequently, stroke-bore ratio and valve layout were optimized. Also, both flow coefficient and intake tumble ratio port were improved by adopting a laser cladded valve seat. In addition, several new technologies were adopted. The Atkinson cycle using a new Electrical VVT (Variable Valve Timing) and new combustion technology adopting new multi-hole type Direct fuel Injector (DI) improved engine power and fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

The Humidity Control System Applied to Reduce Ventilation Heat Loss of HVAC Systems

Vehicles have been more required to save energy against the background of the tendency of ecology. As the result of improving efficiency of internal combustion engines and adoption of electric power train, heat loss from engine coolant, which is used to heat the cabin, decreases and consequently additional energy may be consumed to maintain thermal comfort in the passenger compartment in winter. This paper is concerned with the humidity control system that realizes reduction of ventilation heat loss by controlling recirculation rate of the HVAC system by using highly accurate humidity sensor to evaluate risk of fogging on the windshield. As the results of the control, fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles decreases and maximum range of electric vehicles increases.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties and Oxygenates on Diesel Exhaust Emissions

The effects of diesel fuel properties (aromatic content, cetane index and T90), cetane improver, oxygenates, high boiling point hydrocarbons and aromatics distribution on diesel exhaust emissions were studied under the Japanese 10-15 test cycle and the ECE+EUDC test cycle. The test vehicle was a TOYOTA COROLLA with a natural aspirated, 2.0L displacement, IDI diesel engine. It was demonstrated that particulate emissions are highly correlated with T90 and that NOx is affected by the aromatic content of fuel. A reduction in particulates emissions was observed in fuel with a lower cetane number by adding cetane improver, but this reduction was limited. Cetane improver had no effect on NOx emissions in the 45 # 60 cetane number range. Oxygenates reduced particulate emissions remarkably but had little effect on NOx emissions. A decrease in the soot in particulates was particularly observed.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.