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Technical Paper

A Study of Additive Effects on ATF Frictional Properties Using New Test Methods

1990-10-01
902150
A new test machine has been developed which can evaluate vibration due to stick-slip using an actual full-scale clutch pack. Using this machine, a static breakaway friction coefficient measurement test method and a stick-slip test method have been established. Both methods have been shown to provide results which correlate with the results from both a full-scale assembly test and a vehicle shudder evaluation test. The evaluation of the frictional properties of commercial oils using these test methods showed that the static breakaway friction coefficient and the stick-slip properties have generally contradictory performance to each other for automatic transmission. The study of the frictional properties for typical additives and an analysis of the surface of the steel plates with ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) showed that the frictional properties are significantly affected by the additives adsorbed on the clutch plate sliding surface.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of an Overtaking Articulated Heavy Goods Vehicle on Car-Trailer-An Analysis to Improve Controllability

1987-10-01
871919
It is well known and a common experience among drivers that controllability and stability of a car-trailer combination is affected when an articulated Heavy Goods Vehicle overtakes. In this paper, aerodynamic effects to a car-trailer combination when it is overtaken by an articulated HGV, have been analyzed experimentally using 1/20 scale models in wind tunnel, and a method to suppress this phenomenon has been investigated. The dynamic behaivor of a car-trailer combination is simulated by a simple mathematical model. The result shows that a car-trailer combination can be stable following the addittion of aerodynamic devices to each side of the vehicle. This simulated result is verified by the on-read test.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Milling Mechanism by Ball End-Mill and Development of High Speed Die-Sinking Method

1988-11-01
881742
Various dies have been used for producing many internal and external parts of an automobile. This paper describes the method of ‘High Speed Die-sinking’ that is one of the key technologies for die-making. We analyzed the milling mechanism of a typical Ball End-Mill used for die-sinking and performed cutting tests. As a result, we have achieved high speed and fine quality die-sinking technology. Its feed speed is about four or five times as fast as before, and the irregularity of the milled surface is under one-fifth as compared with previous level. In addition, we will propose the new method for estimating finishing performance by ball end-mill.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sintered Silicon Nitride Grinding Damage

1993-03-01
930163
Sintered silicon nitride, particularly in structural ceramics, has superior properties such as low weight, heat resistance, wear resistance, etc. It is already being applied to automobile engine parts such as the swirl chamber and the turbine rotor. In recent years, the strength of silicon nitride has shown to be above 1000MPa. This has been achieved through advances in manufacturing technology such as materials powder, forming, sintering and so on. But the silicon nitride is easily damaged during grinding because it has less fracture toughness than metal. Consequently, the inherent strength of the material is not demonstrated in the actual products presently produced. It is assumed that the main cause of strength reduction is microcrack. In ordinary grinding methods, the length of microcrack has been estimated at approximately twenty micrometers by fracture mechanics analysis.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Binding Force Control of Uni-Pressure Cushion in Automobile Panel Stamping

1995-02-01
950916
Recently, single action draw with cushion replaces draw with double action presses. In the single action draw, binding fluctuation problem occurs by its structure. We applied an NC cushion to prevent the problem. We compared the cushion force wave with and without an NC cushion. The NC cushion showed effective damping. We studied the binding force control of a side member outer panel. The panel didn't have the formable range of binding. This means the lowest binding force to avoid wrinkling, still had crack problems. We introduce four patterns of binding force control with the NC cushion. As a result, we found the suitable pattern to suppress the surface distortion. Controlling the binding force shows effectiveness as a means of suppressing surface distortions.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Flow Around a Simplified Vehicle-Like Body

1993-03-01
930293
The flow around a simplified vehicle-like body was computed. The aerodynamic characteristics of this body depended on the afterbody geometry, especially the rear slant angle. In order to examine reliability of computation, the computations were performed for various rear slant angles. Regarding the computational method, two kinds of methods were applied: a Navier-Stokes solver that employs a k- ε turbulence model and a quasi-direct simulation with a third-order upwind difference scheme. Comparing the results with a wind tunnel test data of the flow fields and aerodynamic forces, it was found that, the k- ε model had potential for prediction of flow field and the quasi-direct simulation for prediction of aerodynamic forces.
Technical Paper

Development of Assembly Line Verification

1994-03-01
940890
To more effectively improve the work on a vehicle assembly line, it is desirable to have a method by which the degree of work load on each person can be evaluated quantitatively; enables us to decide the priority order of improvement; and calculates the improvement effect. We developed a quantitative evaluation method of work load by introducing a concept of physiological stress generated regardless of the type of muscles involved. Applying the burden borne by the body to the load evaluation of various assembly operations involved the problem of complex load measuring methods. We solved this problem by categorizing the load conditions for various assembly operations and converting each to a standard state of loads evaluated by experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of Bearing with Composite Overlay for High-Performance Engines

1996-02-01
960988
Recently, there has been a tendency of high power and high speed in automotive engines. In addition they have been also required high reliability. And engine bearings have been required to be advanced in wear resistance as well as seizure resistance. Therefore, copper-lead alloy bearings with overlay, which have better seizure resistance, have been widely used for high speed engines up to the present. But it becomes very important for them to advance the overlay wear resistance. In this paper, the composite overlay is mainly researched to improve wear resistance regarding kind of hard particles and their amounts in the overlay.
Technical Paper

Development of Ductile Cast Iron Flywheel Integrated with Hot Form-Rolled Gear

1998-02-01
980568
New ductile cast iron flywheel integrated with gear and its manufacturing process were developed to reduce the manufacturing steps and cost compared with conventional flywheel around which a steel ring gear is fit. In this process, the ring gear teeth around a cast iron flywheel are formed directly in net shape and free from any defect by the hot form-rolling method, followed by the thermomechanical treatment in a short time. The gear is superior to that made by the conventional hobbing and heat treatment in accuracy, strength and anti-wear property.
Journal Article

Development of Full-Scale Wind Tunnel for Enhancement of Vehicle Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0598
A new wind tunnel was developed and adopted by Toyota Motor Corporation in March 2013. This wind tunnel is equipped with a 5-belt rolling road system with a platform balance that enables the flow simulation under the floor and around the tires in on-road conditions. It also minimizes the characteristic pulsation that occurs in wind tunnels to enable the evaluation of unsteady aerodynamic performance aspects. This paper describes the technology developed for this new wind tunnel and its performance verification results. In addition, after verifying the stand-alone performance of the wind tunnel, a vehicle was placed in the tunnel to verify the utility of the wind tunnel performance. Tests simulated flow fields around the vehicle in on-road conditions and confirmed that the wind tunnel is capable of evaluating unsteady flows.
Technical Paper

Development of Galvanized Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Body Panels with an Excellent Filiform Corrosion Resistance

1993-03-01
930703
Filiform corrosion phenomenon and its prevention method for 5000 series aluminum alloy sheet have been investigated. The painted aluminum alloy sheets were subject significantly to filiform corrosion caused by formation of a mottled and coarse zinc phosphate film during chemical conversion process. On the other hand, galvanized aluminum alloy sheet showed an uniform and fine phosphate film in a brief time and the filiform corrosion resistance was improved markedly. The test results of press-forming and corrosion for the prototype engine hoods made of this newly developed galvanized sheets have revealed a good formability and an excellent filiform corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy NOx Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0749
This paper presents an improvement in the accuracy of NOx sensors at high NOx concentration regions by optimizing the manufacturing process, sensor electrode materials and structure, in order to suppress the deterioration mechanism of sensor electrodes. Though NOx sensors generally consist of Pt/Au alloy based oxygen pump electrodes and Pt/Rh alloy based sensor electrodes, detailed experimental analysis of aged NOx sensors showed changes in the surface composition and morphology of the sensor electrode. The surface of the sensor electrode was covered with Au, which is not originally contained in the electrode, resulting in a diminished active site for NOx detection on the sensor electrode and a decrease in sensor output. Theoretical analysis using CAE with molecular dynamics supported that Au tends to be concentrated on the surface of the sensor electrode.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Wheel Torque Measuring System and Its Applications

1987-02-01
870642
The wheel torque measuring system (abbr. WTMS) has been developed for evaluating the torque applied to each wheel of automotive vehicles under actual running conditions. WTMS is a novel type system in which the torque signal is transmitted by a high-performance and compact photo-telemetric coupling system. Within the torque measurement range of ±2.94 kN·m, the resolution of torque output is ±1 N·m so that torque can be measured with an extremely high degree of accuracy. Therefore, measurements can be taken from the high torque applied in the case of a quick accelerating test or a sudden braking test to the measurement of a low amount of torque such as running resistance of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Metal Full-Filling Method Joining Ceramic Shaft to Metal Sleeve for High Performance

1993-03-01
930164
Toyota Motor Corporation has mass-produced turbochager with sillicon nitride ceramic rotors. A moment of inertia was reduced by 60% using ceramic rotor which improved turbochager response. The ceramic rotor was joined to metal shaft by new method which compensated problems in both shrink fitting and active brazing methods. They are generals for mechanical and chemical techniques, respectively. There still exist the following disadvantages. It is quite severe to controll the clearance of shrink fitting to obtain the reliability of the joint. The shaft may be loosened at high temperature with a small shrink-fit interference. The large shrink-fit interference could result in a failure of ceramic shaft due to large stress. Those may require a machinig accuracy with micron meter order of surface roughness which, leads to high cost.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of Non-Lead-Added Free-Cutting Steel for Automobile Parts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1527
A new, free-cutting steel, hereafter referred to as “non-lead-added free-cutting steel”, has been developed with the intention of replacing currently applied lead containing free cutting steel. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a new lead-free steel grade that will contribute to the removal of environmentally harmful substances from automobile parts. In this project, we have targeted the development of a material that would demonstrate levels of machinability and other mechanical properties equivalent to those of the conventional free-cutting steel to which sulfur (S), lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) or combinations, thereof have been added. The fine dispersion of sulfide, modified by adding Mg and Ca, is most effective in enhancing the chip breakability that would otherwise deteriorate due to the absence of lead. The practical application of the non-lead-added free-cutting steel has rendered the goal of total removal of lead from special steel products highly obtainable.
Technical Paper

Development of P/M Titanium Engine Valves

2000-03-06
2000-01-0905
In October 1998, a new mass-produced car with titanium engine-valves was released from TOYOTA Motor Corporation. Both intake and exhaust valves were manufactured via a newly developed cost-effective P/M forging process. Furthermore, the material which was specially designed for the exhaust one is a unique titanium metal matrix composite (MMC). This paper discusses the materials and manufacturing methods used. The tensile, fatigue strength and creep resistance of the MMC are always superior to those for the typical heat-resistant steel of 21-4N. Both valves have achieved sufficient durability and reliability with a manufacturing cost acceptable for mass-produced automobile parts.
Technical Paper

Development of Painted Super Olefin Bumper Recycling Technology

1996-02-01
960283
In automotive plastic parts, bumpers are rather bigger parts and easy to be detached. And there is growing need to develop bumpers recycling technology. Now we developed the recycling technology for waste painted Super Olefin Polymer (SOP) bumpers from car dealers in production. This technology consists of discriminating from the repair in market by dyeing, and of melting SOP resin and hydrolysis of the paint film which are carried out simultaneously in a twin-screw extruder Reactive Processing System.
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