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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

1985-11-11
852199
The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Drive Line and Suspension Using Finite Element Models

1993-05-01
931306
Finite element aodels have been developed to analyze drive line and suspension vibration. For the analysis of booming noise, we have addressed the optimization of the differential gear carrier mounting system by using a virtual system and realization of it considering many constraints. To reduce the differential whine noise, a simulation method considering the transmitting error of the differential gear was applied. And we have approached for the subtle arrangements of many structural resonances with detail research of the drive line and suspension. For the reduction of road noise, we adopted the approach of shifting the node of the rear suspension member mode.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

1985-11-11
852203
In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Using the Modal Response of Window Vibrations to Validate SEA Wind Noise Models

2017-06-05
2017-01-1807
The SEA model of wind noise requires the quantification of both the acoustic as well as the turbulent flow contributions to the exterior pressure. The acoustic pressure is difficult to measure because it is usually much lower in amplitude than the turbulent pressure. However, the coupling of the acoustic pressure to the surface vibration is usually much stronger than the turbulent pressure, especially in the acoustic coincidence frequency range. The coupling is determined by the spatial matching between the pressure and the vibration which can be described by the wavenumber spectra. This paper uses measured vibration modes of a vehicle window to determine the coupling to both acoustic and turbulent pressure fields and compares these to the results from an SEA model. The interior acoustic intensity radiating from the window during road tests is also used to validate the results.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Journal Article

Thermal Flow Analysis of Hybrid Transaxle Surface Using Newly-Developed Heat Flux Measurement Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-1652
This research developed a new measurement technology for thermal analysis of the heat radiation from a hybrid transaxle case surface to the air and improved the heat radiation performance. This heat flux measurement technology provides the method to measure heat flux without wiring of sensors. The method does not have effects of wiring on the temperature field and the flow field unlike the conventional methods. Therefore, multipoint measurement of heat flux on the case surface was enabled, and the distribution of heat flux was quantified. To measure heat flux, thermal resistances made of plastic plates were attached to the case surface and the infrared thermography was used for the temperature measurement. The preliminary examination was performed to confirm the accuracy of the thermal evaluation through heat flux measurement. The oil in the transaxle was heated and the amount of heat radiation from the case surface was measured.
Technical Paper

The World's First Transverse 8-Speed Automatic Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-1274
We have developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission for transverse FWD/4WD vehicles. The aim of this new automatic transmission was to achieve world-class fuel economy while offering both smooth gear shift and sporty shift feeling suitable for luxury cars. This has been accomplished using wide spread gear ratio, outstanding low drag components and highly efficient hydraulic control system. In addition, we have achieved the compactness similar to current 6-speed automatic transmission by adopting new gear train and compact clutch layout. In this paper, the detail of this automatic transmission is introduced.
Technical Paper

Technique of ECU Circuit Design Management for Automotive Ethernet

2017-03-28
2017-01-0021
In recent years, the demand for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication for in-vehicle networks has been increasing. This is because the usage of high-resolution screens and high-performance rear seat entertainment (RSE) systems is expanding. Additionally, it is also due to the higher number of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and the future introduction of autonomous driving systems. High-volume data such as high definition sensor images or obstacle information is necessary to realize these systems. Consequently, automotive Ethernet, which meets the requirements for high-speed/high-bandwidth communication, is attracting a lot of attention. The application of automotive Ethernet to in-vehicle networks requires that technology developments satisfy EMC performance requirements. In-vehicle EMC requirements consist of two parts: emission and immunity. The emission requirement is to restrict the electromagnetic noise emitted from vehicle.
Technical Paper

Super Olefin Polymer for Material Consolidation of Automotive Interior Plastic Parts

1996-02-01
960296
A new automotive interior component material, TSOP-5 has been developed by refining the technology utilized to develop TSOP-1, the high modulus and high flow material for bumper covers. This new interior component material has excellent molding capability (MI=30dg/min.) yet still maintains high impact resistance which enables the material to be used in areas such as the dash board as well as trim covers requiring to meet the FMVSS 214, the new side impact regulation or the FMVSS 201, the new soft upper trim regulation.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation Mechanism -Influence of Fuel Components and Gasoline Detergents-

1997-05-01
971722
The combustion chamber deposit (CCD) forming tendency of gasoline components and detergents were investigated with laboratory tests ad engine dynamometer tests. In the dynamometer tests, the driving conditions under which fuels and detergents influence CCD formation were specified, and the effects of different gasoline components and detergent blends on CCD formation were examined. In the laboratory tests, the CCD forming process was investigated thoroughly [10]. The CCD forming tendency of aromatic compounds in gasoline were dependent not only on physical properties such as molecular weight, but also chemical structure (number or position of the alkyl substituents of aromatic molecules). As for oxygenates, engine dynamometer tests with MTBE blended gasoline yielded less CCD than the test without MTBE. The CCD forming tendency of detergents correlated with the thermal decompositon tendency of the detergent package and the concentration of the main agents.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Flow Rate Change in Injector for Methanol Fueled S.I. Engine

1995-02-01
950071
The change of the fuel flow rate in an injector with mileage accumulation causes poor drivability and exhaust emission deterioration in Otto-type methanol fueled vehicles with a multi-point fuel injection system. This is one of the serious problems which needs to be solved for the practical use of methanol fueled vehicles. The investigation results reveal that the wear of contact surfaces between a valve needle and a valve body increases the resistance force for valve needle movement and causes the change of dynamic fuel flow rate in the injector. The effects of several countermeasures to solve this problem are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Study of Cooling Drag Reduction Method by Controlling Cooling Flow

2014-04-01
2014-01-0679
As the demand for improved fuel economy increases and new CO2 regulations have been issued, aerodynamic drag reduction has become more critical. One of the important factors to consider is cooling drag. One way to reduce cooling drag is to decrease the air flow volume through the front grille, but this has an undesirable impact on cooling performance as well as component heat load in the under-hood area. For this reason, cooling drag reduction methods while keeping reliability, cooling performance and component heat management were investigated in this study. At first, air flow volume reduction at high speed was studied, where aerodynamic drag has the greatest influence. For vehicles sold in the USA, cooling specification tends to be determined based on low speed, while towing or driving up mountain roads, and therefore, there may be extra cooling capacity under high speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Stability of a One Box Type Vehicle in a Cross-Wind-An Analysis of Transient Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

1988-10-01
881878
One-box type vehicles are especially liable to a loss of stability when entering a region of cross-wind. The reasons for this instability were investigated using scale models and by means of a mathematical simulation. Results indicated that yawing moment attains a peak at a precise position of the vehicle relative to the cross-wind. Visualization of the air flow and measurement of the pressure distributions established the cause of the phenomenon. Furthermore a study was conducted into the effects of body shape on stability and the efficacy of various modifications was assessed.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Swirl Lower-Chamber for High Power Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1985-02-01
850523
This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities in the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9PS as compared to that of conventional engines.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Enhancement Using Active Stabilizer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0563
Ongoing research on active stabilizers involves not only control of the roll angle of the vehicle based on steering input but also improving ride comfort by reducing roll vibration caused by the antiphase road surface input. In that context, roll skyhook control, which applies skyhook theory to provide feedback on the vehicle roll and drive the actuators, has already been presented. Although vibration in all frequency bands can be reduced if there is no control delay, time lags or phase delays in control elements such as the communication, computation, low-pass filter, or actuators can amplify vibration. Consequently, a sufficient effect of controlling cannot be obtained. This paper will address wheelbase filtering, which produces a frequency that minimizes roll oscillation, and is used to suppress the influence of the undesirable vibration.
Technical Paper

Research on Improving Thermal Efficiency through Variable Super-High Expansion Ratio Cycle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0174
The compression ratio and expansion ratio are fundamental parameters that determine the thermal efficiency of an SI engine, and the potential of setting these ratios to arbitrary values was studied as a way of improving engine efficiency. First, the efficiency resulting from different compression and expansion ratios was calculated from a theoretical formula. As a result, it was verified that a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency could be expected by adopting a super-high expansion ratio of 20 or higher, which is an extremely large value for an SI engine, while keeping the compression ratio within a range that can ensure appropriate combustion. Subsequently, this research calculated the possibility of improving engine efficiency under a condition that constrains the swept volume to a constant value in consideration of practicability.
Technical Paper

Research in Regard to Sensory Characteristics Measuring for the Impulse Noise of the Engine Valve System

1991-02-01
910620
This research proposes an automatic measuring method for the impulse noise of the valve system in engine production line. This research is composed of the following two parts. (1) The most suitable method for indicating the impulse noise of the valve system - the representative characteristic values - is selected from the general measuring methods for impulse noise. As the result, the crest factor in the frequency band above 1kHz became optimal. (2) By detailed sensory characteristic analysis it was found that impulse noise can be heard better with increasing frequency and that there is little influence in the frequency band with the same frequency as the background noise. Thus the crest factor was obtained for each frequency, and the sensory test for the impulse noise of the valve system is deduced by this linear coupling. As the result of multiple reguression analysis, a high accuracy prediction equetion with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.91 has been obtained.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a New Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0530
A new stratified charge combustion system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle. The stratified mixture is produced by the combination of this fan-spray and a shell-shaped piston cavity. Both under-mixing and over-mixing of fuel in the stratified mixture is reduced by this system. This combustion system does not require distinct charge motion such as tumble or swirl, which enables intake port geometry to be simplified to improve full load performance. The effects of the new system on engine performance at part load are improved fuel consumption and reduced smoke, CO and HC emissions, obviously at medium load and medium engine speed. HC emissions at light load are also improved even with high EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology of Surface Material for Interior Trims

2000-03-06
2000-01-0741
Two-layered surface materials composed of a thermoplastic olefin elastomer (TPO) skin and a cross-linked polypropylene (PP)foam are increasingly replacing the conventional PVC skin/PVC foam for interior trims. In the past, recycled material obtained by melt-blending TPO skin and PP foam could not be re-used for TPO skin because of its appearance. A new recycling technology using the reaction biaxial extruder with a reaction agent can decompose the network structure of PP foam. As a result, PP foam is dispersed into TPO uniformly and the recycled material has properties and an appearance similar to virgin TPO. These new properties may allow the application of the recycled material as a surface material.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Vehicle Interior Noise Reduction

1982-02-01
820963
In order to reduce the interior noise of a vehicle with a four-cylinder engine, investigations were made using finite element and vector methods, acoustic intensity testing and holography technique. The investigation resulted in inclination of the engine mounting, design changes to the front suspension member, a shock absorber engine mounting, structural modifications to reduce body panel vibration and a new engine mounting to insulate high frequency engine vibration.
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