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Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Passenger Car Using a Combination of Rankine Bottoming Cycle and Evaporative Engine Cooling System

Rankine bottoming system, which operates on waste heat of engine cooling, has been developped to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. Evaporative engine cooling system is utilized to obtain high thermal efficiency and simplicity of the Rankine bottoming system. The bottoming system uses HCFC123 as a working fluid, and scroll expander as a power conversion unit. The results indicate that energy recovery, which depends on the ambient temperature, is almost 3 percent of engine output power at ambient temperature of 25°C.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Transient Response Based on Human Sensitivity

Grip feeling is an important facet in vehicle dynamics evaluation from a driver satisfaction and enjoyment standpoint. To improve grip feeling, we analyzed the subjective comments from test driver's about grip feeling and an evaluated human sensitivity to lateral motion. As a result, we found that drivers evaluate transient grip feeling according to the magnitude of lateral jerk. Next, we analyzed what vehicle parameters affect lateral jerk by using theoretical equations. As a result, we found that cornering power is an important parameter, especially the cornering power of rear tires as they can be create larger lateral jerk than can front tires.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Control in Limit Cornering by Active Brake

Improvement of vehicle dynamics in limit cornering have been studied. Simulations and tests have verified that vehicle stability and course trace performance in limit cornering have been improved by active brake control of each wheel. The controler manages vehicle yaw moment utilizing difference braking force between left and right wheels, and vehicle deceleration utilizing sum of braking forces of all wheels.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Toyota's World First 8-Speed Automatic Transmission for Passenger Cars

TOYOTA has developed the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E) for front-engine, rear-drive passenger cars. The AA80E developed for high-torque engines raises the level of power performance and fuel efficiency. To meet the size requirements needed for mounting in a passenger car application, an 8-speed geartrain, torque converter, transmission case and hydraulic control device were all newly-developed. Furthermore, the AA80E has benefited from technical developments to achieve an extremely high level of quietness and shifting performance. In this paper, the details of the AA80E are introduced.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Integrated Drive Power Control System

Toyota has developed a new system, which uses integrated control of powertrain by PowerTrain Management (PTM), in order to improve driving comfort and reliability. This system is currently in use on Lexus's new LS460. This system is composed of 4 parts: a generation part, a mediating part, a modification part and a distribution part. In each part, processes are based on drive power and torque. In the generation part, requests from a programmed model driver, Driving Support Computer and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) are generated and expressed by drive power. In the mediating part, most suitable vehicle drive power was selected among the requests. In the modification part, the selected request is modified using a programmed powertrain model, which considers internal combustion engine condition and powertrain response and transmission's tolerance. In the distribution part, optimized engine torque and gear ratio are processed.
Technical Paper

Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension (TEMS) System for the 1983 Soarer

TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION had developed the world's first microprocessor controlled suspension system, Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension (TEMS), which is now being offered on the Toyota Soarer from Feb. '83. This system consists of sensors, switches, electronic control unit (ECU), actuators and shock absorbers. TEMS uses a microprocessor to adjust the damping forces of the front and rear shock absorbers. As a result, suspension can be tuned in two stages (hard and soft cushioning) and driver can choose three control modes (AUTO, SPORT, NORMAL). In AUTO mode, the TEMS system has achieved attitude controls (i.e. squat control, roll control and nosedive control). The TEMS system achieved a 15 - 30% decrease of squat, a 20 - 30% decrease of roll angle, a 10 - 30% decrease of nose-dive and a 30 - 40% decrease of shift-squat.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Slip Control System

The torque converter clutch slip control system adopted in the Toyota A541E automatic transaxle engages the torque converter clutch by applying a steady slip speed to prevent the torque fluctuation of the engine to be transmitted to the drivetrain while enhancing the transmission efficiency of the torque converter. The feedback controller of the slip speed adopts the H∞ (H-Infinity) control theory which offers a high level of robust stability, and is the first of its kind in a mass produced component. As a result, a highly accurate and reliable system has been realized, contributing to large-scale fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

The Humidity Control System Applied to Reduce Ventilation Heat Loss of HVAC Systems

Vehicles have been more required to save energy against the background of the tendency of ecology. As the result of improving efficiency of internal combustion engines and adoption of electric power train, heat loss from engine coolant, which is used to heat the cabin, decreases and consequently additional energy may be consumed to maintain thermal comfort in the passenger compartment in winter. This paper is concerned with the humidity control system that realizes reduction of ventilation heat loss by controlling recirculation rate of the HVAC system by using highly accurate humidity sensor to evaluate risk of fogging on the windshield. As the results of the control, fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles decreases and maximum range of electric vehicles increases.
Technical Paper

The High-Speed In-Vehicle Network of Integrated Control System for Vehicle Dynamics

This paper describes the preliminary development of an on-board integration network for vehicle dynamics. The underlying philosophy is explained and the basic requirements are set forth. A design conforming to these requirements is presented and the experiments conducted to optimise the physical layer are described. An original token passing protocol is proposed for the access method and evaluated in comparison with the contention method by means of a specially devised simulation system.
Technical Paper

Stability of a One Box Type Vehicle in a Cross-Wind-An Analysis of Transient Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

One-box type vehicles are especially liable to a loss of stability when entering a region of cross-wind. The reasons for this instability were investigated using scale models and by means of a mathematical simulation. Results indicated that yawing moment attains a peak at a precise position of the vehicle relative to the cross-wind. Visualization of the air flow and measurement of the pressure distributions established the cause of the phenomenon. Furthermore a study was conducted into the effects of body shape on stability and the efficacy of various modifications was assessed.
Technical Paper

Spark Plug Fouling: Behavior and Countermeasure

The higher compression ratio engines, two-stroke engines and flexible fuel vehicles currently under development tend to face the problems of spark plug fouling owing to the necessity of using cold type spark plugs. This paper analyzes the sparking of fouled spark plugs and investigates the characteristics required of an ignition system in order to avoid fouling problems. The results clearly establish that to maintain a strong spark even when the plug is fouled, a high voltage should be instantaneously applied to the spark plug. A series-gap on the high-tension side was confirmed to be an effective means of achieving this and a new plug cap provided with a series-gap has resolved fouling problems such as failure to start. Lately, fuel economy and long-term energy conservation have become critically important. For automobiles, higher compression ratio engines, two-stroke engines and flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are being developed.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Swirl Lower-Chamber for High Power Turbocharged Diesel Engines

This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities in the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9PS as compared to that of conventional engines.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Enhancement Using Active Stabilizer

Ongoing research on active stabilizers involves not only control of the roll angle of the vehicle based on steering input but also improving ride comfort by reducing roll vibration caused by the antiphase road surface input. In that context, roll skyhook control, which applies skyhook theory to provide feedback on the vehicle roll and drive the actuators, has already been presented. Although vibration in all frequency bands can be reduced if there is no control delay, time lags or phase delays in control elements such as the communication, computation, low-pass filter, or actuators can amplify vibration. Consequently, a sufficient effect of controlling cannot be obtained. This paper will address wheelbase filtering, which produces a frequency that minimizes roll oscillation, and is used to suppress the influence of the undesirable vibration.
Journal Article

Research into Engine Friction Reduction under Cold Conditions - Effect of Reducing Oil Leakage on Bearing Friction

Fuel efficiency improvement measures are focusing on both cold and hot conditions to help reduce CO2 emissions. Recent technological trends for improving fuel economy such as hybrid vehicles (HVs), engine start and stop systems, and variable valve systems feature expanded use of low-temperature engine operation regions. Under cold conditions (oil temperature: approximately 30°C), fuel consumption is roughly 20% greater than under hot conditions (80°C). The main cause of the increased friction under cold conditions is increased oil viscosity. This research used the motoring slipping method to measure the effect of an improved crankshaft bearing, which accounts for a high proportion of friction under cold conditions. First, the effect of clearance was investigated. Although increasing the clearance helped to decrease friction due to the oil wedge effect, greater oil leakage reduced the oil film temperature increase generated by the friction.
Technical Paper

Preview Ride Comfort Control for Electric Active Suspension (eActive3)

This paper reports the results of a study into a preview control that uses the displacement of the road surface in front of the vehicle to improve for front and rear actuator responsiveness delays, as well as delays due to calculation, communication, and the like. This study also examined the effect of a preview control using the eActive3 electric active suspension system, which is capable of controlling the roll, pitch, and warp modes of vehicle motion.
Technical Paper

Precise Temperature Control for Molten Ferrous Alloy in Induction Furnace

A precise control system for a molten ferrous alloy temperature above 1700 K after the completion of induction melting has been developed in order to produce high quality casting parts for automobiles. In this system, the molten ferrous alloy temperature is measured just one time by a disposable thermocouple after the melting. The system predicts the temperature transition after the measurement using an original thermal model, and adjusts the supplied electric power to the furnace automatically according to the predicted temperature. Using this thermal model, the system has attained control deviations within ±5K under the following temperature controls, and contributed to the quality control of casting parts and the energy-saving during furnace operations. Casting temperature for a cast-steel of 1813 K in a 300 kg capacity high-frequency induction furnace on the “Toyota Vacuum Casting Process”.
Technical Paper

Power Plant Model of Fuel Consumption and Vibration for Vehicle Concept Planning

It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration in advance. This can be accomplished using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In this paper, I will show the power plant model with electric starter and battery that can predict fuel economy, combustion heat results and transient torque. The power plant is a 1.3L 4cyl designed for NA Spark Ignition. The power plant model was realized using an energy based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language stored in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) and can realize multi physics in 1D simulation. The modeling language supports electrical, magnetic, thermal, mechanical, fluidic and compressive fluidic domains. The model was created in house using VHDL-AMS and validated on ANSYS SIMPLORER. The simulated results of fuel energy consumption agreed with driving energy and amount of energy losses, e.g. cooling loss, exhaust loss.