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Technical Paper

Vehicle Transient Response Based on Human Sensitivity

2008-04-14
2008-01-0597
Grip feeling is an important facet in vehicle dynamics evaluation from a driver satisfaction and enjoyment standpoint. To improve grip feeling, we analyzed the subjective comments from test driver's about grip feeling and an evaluated human sensitivity to lateral motion. As a result, we found that drivers evaluate transient grip feeling according to the magnitude of lateral jerk. Next, we analyzed what vehicle parameters affect lateral jerk by using theoretical equations. As a result, we found that cornering power is an important parameter, especially the cornering power of rear tires as they can be create larger lateral jerk than can front tires.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Control in Limit Cornering by Active Brake

1996-02-01
960487
Improvement of vehicle dynamics in limit cornering have been studied. Simulations and tests have verified that vehicle stability and course trace performance in limit cornering have been improved by active brake control of each wheel. The controler manages vehicle yaw moment utilizing difference braking force between left and right wheels, and vehicle deceleration utilizing sum of braking forces of all wheels.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

2011-05-17
2011-39-7204
In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
Technical Paper

Valve Rocker Arm Material for Investment Casting

1985-11-11
852203
In order to develop the valve rocker arm material for the new type engine, we investigated various materials whose chemical compositions were selected using 30% chromium cast iron, which had shown good results in screening evaluation tests, as the basis. High chromium cast irons are well known for their abrasive wear resistance, but it has been very difficult to apply them for use as rocker arm material because their machinability is very poor, and because it is difficult for them to have a regular microstructure. In this paper, both the manufacturing method for the rocker arm which decreases the disadvantages that high chromium cast iron have and the rocker arm material best suited for this method are described.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Integrated Drive Power Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1306
Toyota has developed a new system, which uses integrated control of powertrain by PowerTrain Management (PTM), in order to improve driving comfort and reliability. This system is currently in use on Lexus's new LS460. This system is composed of 4 parts: a generation part, a mediating part, a modification part and a distribution part. In each part, processes are based on drive power and torque. In the generation part, requests from a programmed model driver, Driving Support Computer and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) are generated and expressed by drive power. In the mediating part, most suitable vehicle drive power was selected among the requests. In the modification part, the selected request is modified using a programmed powertrain model, which considers internal combustion engine condition and powertrain response and transmission's tolerance. In the distribution part, optimized engine torque and gear ratio are processed.
Technical Paper

Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension (TEMS) System for the 1983 Soarer

1984-02-01
840341
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION had developed the world's first microprocessor controlled suspension system, Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension (TEMS), which is now being offered on the Toyota Soarer from Feb. '83. This system consists of sensors, switches, electronic control unit (ECU), actuators and shock absorbers. TEMS uses a microprocessor to adjust the damping forces of the front and rear shock absorbers. As a result, suspension can be tuned in two stages (hard and soft cushioning) and driver can choose three control modes (AUTO, SPORT, NORMAL). In AUTO mode, the TEMS system has achieved attitude controls (i.e. squat control, roll control and nosedive control). The TEMS system achieved a 15 - 30% decrease of squat, a 20 - 30% decrease of roll angle, a 10 - 30% decrease of nose-dive and a 30 - 40% decrease of shift-squat.
Technical Paper

Torque Converter Clutch Slip Control System

1995-02-01
950672
The torque converter clutch slip control system adopted in the Toyota A541E automatic transaxle engages the torque converter clutch by applying a steady slip speed to prevent the torque fluctuation of the engine to be transmitted to the drivetrain while enhancing the transmission efficiency of the torque converter. The feedback controller of the slip speed adopts the H∞ (H-Infinity) control theory which offers a high level of robust stability, and is the first of its kind in a mass produced component. As a result, a highly accurate and reliable system has been realized, contributing to large-scale fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Thin wall and lightweight cylinder block production technology

2000-06-12
2000-05-0067
The automobile industry currently faces many challenges which may greatly impact on its foundry operations. One of these challenges, consumers'' demand for greater fuel efficiency, can be met by reducing the weight of castings used in automobiles, and minimizing engineering tolerances. In answer to this particular demand, engine foundries have begun to either produce cylinder blocks or other castings with aluminum rather than cast iron. However, if a reduction in weight (thin wall and near-net shaping) can be realized with cast iron, there would be numerous merits from the perspective of cost and compactness and there would be much more flexibility in automotive parts design.
Technical Paper

The High-Speed In-Vehicle Network of Integrated Control System for Vehicle Dynamics

1991-02-01
910463
This paper describes the preliminary development of an on-board integration network for vehicle dynamics. The underlying philosophy is explained and the basic requirements are set forth. A design conforming to these requirements is presented and the experiments conducted to optimise the physical layer are described. An original token passing protocol is proposed for the access method and evaluated in comparison with the contention method by means of a specially devised simulation system.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation Mechanism -Influence of Fuel Components and Gasoline Detergents-

1997-05-01
971722
The combustion chamber deposit (CCD) forming tendency of gasoline components and detergents were investigated with laboratory tests ad engine dynamometer tests. In the dynamometer tests, the driving conditions under which fuels and detergents influence CCD formation were specified, and the effects of different gasoline components and detergent blends on CCD formation were examined. In the laboratory tests, the CCD forming process was investigated thoroughly [10]. The CCD forming tendency of aromatic compounds in gasoline were dependent not only on physical properties such as molecular weight, but also chemical structure (number or position of the alkyl substituents of aromatic molecules). As for oxygenates, engine dynamometer tests with MTBE blended gasoline yielded less CCD than the test without MTBE. The CCD forming tendency of detergents correlated with the thermal decompositon tendency of the detergent package and the concentration of the main agents.
Technical Paper

Stability of a One Box Type Vehicle in a Cross-Wind-An Analysis of Transient Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

1988-10-01
881878
One-box type vehicles are especially liable to a loss of stability when entering a region of cross-wind. The reasons for this instability were investigated using scale models and by means of a mathematical simulation. Results indicated that yawing moment attains a peak at a precise position of the vehicle relative to the cross-wind. Visualization of the air flow and measurement of the pressure distributions established the cause of the phenomenon. Furthermore a study was conducted into the effects of body shape on stability and the efficacy of various modifications was assessed.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Swirl Lower-Chamber for High Power Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1985-02-01
850523
This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities in the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9PS as compared to that of conventional engines.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Enhancement Using Active Stabilizer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0563
Ongoing research on active stabilizers involves not only control of the roll angle of the vehicle based on steering input but also improving ride comfort by reducing roll vibration caused by the antiphase road surface input. In that context, roll skyhook control, which applies skyhook theory to provide feedback on the vehicle roll and drive the actuators, has already been presented. Although vibration in all frequency bands can be reduced if there is no control delay, time lags or phase delays in control elements such as the communication, computation, low-pass filter, or actuators can amplify vibration. Consequently, a sufficient effect of controlling cannot be obtained. This paper will address wheelbase filtering, which produces a frequency that minimizes roll oscillation, and is used to suppress the influence of the undesirable vibration.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology of Surface Material for Interior Trims

2000-03-06
2000-01-0741
Two-layered surface materials composed of a thermoplastic olefin elastomer (TPO) skin and a cross-linked polypropylene (PP)foam are increasingly replacing the conventional PVC skin/PVC foam for interior trims. In the past, recycled material obtained by melt-blending TPO skin and PP foam could not be re-used for TPO skin because of its appearance. A new recycling technology using the reaction biaxial extruder with a reaction agent can decompose the network structure of PP foam. As a result, PP foam is dispersed into TPO uniformly and the recycled material has properties and an appearance similar to virgin TPO. These new properties may allow the application of the recycled material as a surface material.
Technical Paper

Preview Ride Comfort Control for Electric Active Suspension (eActive3)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0057
This paper reports the results of a study into a preview control that uses the displacement of the road surface in front of the vehicle to improve for front and rear actuator responsiveness delays, as well as delays due to calculation, communication, and the like. This study also examined the effect of a preview control using the eActive3 electric active suspension system, which is capable of controlling the roll, pitch, and warp modes of vehicle motion.
Technical Paper

Precise Temperature Control for Molten Ferrous Alloy in Induction Furnace

1997-02-24
970376
A precise control system for a molten ferrous alloy temperature above 1700 K after the completion of induction melting has been developed in order to produce high quality casting parts for automobiles. In this system, the molten ferrous alloy temperature is measured just one time by a disposable thermocouple after the melting. The system predicts the temperature transition after the measurement using an original thermal model, and adjusts the supplied electric power to the furnace automatically according to the predicted temperature. Using this thermal model, the system has attained control deviations within ±5K under the following temperature controls, and contributed to the quality control of casting parts and the energy-saving during furnace operations. Casting temperature for a cast-steel of 1813 K in a 300 kg capacity high-frequency induction furnace on the “Toyota Vacuum Casting Process”.
Technical Paper

Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid - Synthesis, Properties and Application to Automotive Timing Belt Cover

1991-02-01
910584
ϵ-caprolactam was polymerized in the interlayer space of montmorillonite, the clay mineral yielding a nylon-clay hybrid (NCH). X-ray and TEM measurements revealed that each template of the silicate, which was 1 nm thick, was dispersed in the nylon 6 matrix, and that the interlayer distance of clay increased continuously from 1.2 nm for the unintercalated material to 21.4 nm for the intercalated material. Thus, NCH is a polymer-based molecular composite or a nano-composite. NCH contains 1-15 vol% of monolayer clay. Injection-molded NCH showed excellent mechanical properties compared with nylon 6 in terms of tensile strength, tensile modulus and heat resistance. The tensile modulus of NCH was twice that of Nylon 6, and the heat distortion temperature increased from 65°C for nylon 6 to 145°C for the NCH containing only 1.6 vol% of a clay mineral. It was found that such excellent properties of an NCH system was due to the strong ionic interaction between nylon 6 and the silicate layer.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Deactivation Process of Three-way Catalytic Converters

2000-03-06
2000-01-0214
This paper presents the numerical simulation method to predict the deactivation process of three-way catalytic converters. Three-way catalytic converter's deactivation typically results from thermal and chemical mechanisms. The major factor of thermal deactivation is the sintering of noble metal particles, which is known to depend on the ageing temperature and the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. The chemical deactivation is mainly caused by the poisoning, which has two effects on the catalyst deactivation. One effect is the loss of the catalyst activity, which is expressed by reduced frequency factors of reaction rates. Another effect is the suppression of the noble metal sintering. Poison deposits prevent the noble metal particles from moving in the washcoat, assisted by the reduced thermal loading of reaction heats, which is caused by the loss of the catalyst activity. Modeling these deactivation factors, we propose the rate expression of noble metal sintering.
Technical Paper

New Plastic Coloring and Forming System

1991-02-01
910363
This paper describes a new plastic coloring and forming system. The system greatly reduces the time and amount of raw materials necessary for color changes, and eliminates the need for manual cleaning during a color change. This system is well-suited for small-lot production with frequent color changes, as well as for automated production systems. The system is being used by auto parts makers, and is practical in a variety of other fields involved with the coloring and forming of plastics.
Technical Paper

Multiplex Systems for Automotive Integrated Control

1993-03-01
930002
This paper describes the development of the electrical systems for the integrated control system which unified automobile electronic control systems and led to a dramatic improvement in vehicle dynamics. An outline of the system is presented first, followed by actual automobile application examples of electrical systems employing medium-speed multiplexing.
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