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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Methanol Fueled Engine

The wear mechanisms of the methanol engine were studied using dynamometer tests. Formic acid from methanol combustion mixes with the lubricant oil and attacks the metal surfaces. The iso tacho prorissis method was successfully applied to analyze the formic acid content of the used oil. A large amount of condensed water is also formed by methanol combustion and accelerates the wear. Wear can be effectively reduced by shortening lubricant oil change intervals, by using a special oil and by durable surface treatment of engine parts.
Technical Paper

Wear Analysis of DLC Coating in Oil Containing Mo-DTC

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating has excellent properties like high hardness and low friction. So it has attracted considerable attention in recent years as a low-friction coating material. However, some DLC coatings display increased wear in oil containing Mo-DTC (Molybdenum-dithiocarbamates). Wear analyses of sliding surface after block-on-ring tests were conducted suggest that the decomposition product from Mo-DTC, MoO3, reacts with active sites in the DLC to promote the wear of DLC.
Technical Paper

Water Jacket Spacer for Improvement of Cylinder Bore Temperature Distribution

For reduction of fuel consumption, a new device “Water Jacket Spacer” which improves temperature distribution of a cylinder block bore wall was developed. In the case of a conventional cylinder block, coolant flow concentrates at the bottom and middle region of the water jacket. While temperature of the upper bore wall is high (due to high-temperature combustion gas) the temperature of the lower bore wall is low, since its only function is to support the piston. When the developed spacer is inserted into a water jacket, the coolant flow concentrates at the upper part of the jacket. As a result, cooling ability to the upper bore wall was improved and temperature of lower bore wall was increased, thereby reducing fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery of Passenger Car Using a Combination of Rankine Bottoming Cycle and Evaporative Engine Cooling System

Rankine bottoming system, which operates on waste heat of engine cooling, has been developped to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. Evaporative engine cooling system is utilized to obtain high thermal efficiency and simplicity of the Rankine bottoming system. The bottoming system uses HCFC123 as a working fluid, and scroll expander as a power conversion unit. The results indicate that energy recovery, which depends on the ambient temperature, is almost 3 percent of engine output power at ambient temperature of 25°C.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Vision of Mobile Information Services

As wireless technologies evolve, in-vehicle information services are becoming more and more essential to vehicle users. In contrast with information services in the home, in-vehicle information services emphasize the use of information to make driving more comfortable, rather than simply displaying information during driving. In particular, traffic information is, unlike other kinds of information, effective in getting to a destination and therefore, must be real-time to be useful. In Japan, car navigation systems have a large market penetration; dynamic route guidance systems (DRGS) operating in concert with navigation systems have been popular since 1995. This paper discusses mobile information services including DRGS. The focus is on the Japanese market where navigation technologies are the most advanced.
Technical Paper

Visibility Requirements for Automobile CRT Displays - Color, Contrast and Luminance

Display devices are required to have some fundamental functions which are brightness & gradation, colorfullness, resolution & sharpness, response time, and suitable size of the picture. Since the CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) is superior to the other display devices in these requirements, it can offer much information efficiently and effectively. Their visibility should not be evaluated only on the basis of some standards for office automation systems. From the point of view of human factors, visibility investigations of the CRTs for automobiles are examined. In this paper the relationship between the chromaticity difference and the luminance contrast for drivers to read the picture easily, and the luminance of the background in the CRTs for drivers not to be dazzled in the nighttime driving are clarified.
Journal Article

Vibration Torque Interception using Multi-Functional Electromagnetic Coupling in a HEV Drive Line

In the present paper, we introduce a drivetrain system using an electromagnetic coupling for hybrid electric vehicles, and propose a new control concept of vibration torque interception. The electromagnetic coupling is an electric machine that is composed of a pair of rotors, and electromagnetic torque acts mutually between the rotors. In the drivetrain system, the electromagnetic coupling works as a torque transmission device with a rotational-speed-converting function. We demonstrate that, by using this control, the electromagnetic coupling also works as a damping device that intercepts the vibration torque of the internal combustion engine, while transmitting the smooth torque to its drive line. Using a model of a two-inertia resonance system, a control system is designed such that a transfer function representing input-to-output torque is shaped in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Vibration Reduction Applying Skew Phenomena of Needle Roller Bearings in Brake Actuators

Generally, automobiles have many performance requirements for comfort, of which noise, vibration and harshness are very important. Toyota Motor Corporation equipped several 2003 models with the second-generation Electronically Controlled Brake system (ECB2). These ECB2 actuator units adopted a new structure that reduced pumping noise by controlling the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings. Normally, needle roller bearings are advantageous over other bearings in cases where a large force is loaded on bearings, because the contact areas can be made larger. However, a thrust force arises from skew phenomena because of minute clearances among the component parts of needle roller bearings. As a result, axial vibration of the bearing shaft sometimes occurs due to the thrust force. This paper explains how the thrust force generated from the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings occasionally affects the pumping vibration level of equipped machinery such as the brake actuator unit.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Drive Line and Suspension Using Finite Element Models

Finite element aodels have been developed to analyze drive line and suspension vibration. For the analysis of booming noise, we have addressed the optimization of the differential gear carrier mounting system by using a virtual system and realization of it considering many constraints. To reduce the differential whine noise, a simulation method considering the transmitting error of the differential gear was applied. And we have approached for the subtle arrangements of many structural resonances with detail research of the drive line and suspension. For the reduction of road noise, we adopted the approach of shifting the node of the rear suspension member mode.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Control Valve for Active Suspension

An active suspension system controls a spring constant and an attenuater in real time using a power supply. Generally, the hydraulic pressures are used for transmitting the power. Therefore, a highly reliable and inexpensive control system has been required for a commercial use. This has been achieved by developing a mechanical fluid servo valve which comprises a simple combination of a solenoid valve and a spool valve. The technical problem of the valve vibrations has been solved through the numerical analyses, the fluid flow visualization tests and the vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Verification of High Frequency SiC On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger for PHV

This paper presents a new application of a vehicle on-board battery charger utilizing high frequency Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC is one of the most promising alternatives to Silicon (Si) for power semiconductor devices due to its superior material characteristics such as lower on-state resistance, higher junction temperature, and higher switching frequency. An on-board charger prototype is developed demonstrating these advantages and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating with a switching frequency of 250 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.06 kW results in a gravimetric power density of 3.8 W/kg and a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L, which are about 10 times the densities compared with the current Prius Plug-In Si charger. SiC technology is indispensable to eco-friendly PHV/EV development.
Technical Paper

Verification of Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Application of Highly Effective Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor to HV Inverter

A prototype power control unit (PCU) was manufactured using silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors (diodes and transistors), which have low power loss when switching on and off. This PCU was installed in a hybrid vehicle (HV) and driven on a test course and chassis dynamometer. The test results confirmed a fuel efficiency improvement of about 5 percent.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Verification Test Results of Wireless Charging System

Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) began a wireless charging field test in February 2014. A wireless charging system was installed at the residences of test subjects with the aim of identifying issues related to convenience and installation in daily usage. The test vehicle was fabricated by installing a wireless charging system into a Prius PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle). The installed system had the same charging power as the cable charging system used on the base vehicle, and had a charging time of 1.5 hours. A high-frequency 85 kHz power supply and primary coil were produced for the charging infrastructure. To identify differences in charging behavior, the test subjects were asked to use the cable charging system for the first month before changing to the wireless charging system for two months. Data acquisition was performed by an on-board data logger and through interviews with the test subjects.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Transient Response Based on Human Sensitivity

Grip feeling is an important facet in vehicle dynamics evaluation from a driver satisfaction and enjoyment standpoint. To improve grip feeling, we analyzed the subjective comments from test driver's about grip feeling and an evaluated human sensitivity to lateral motion. As a result, we found that drivers evaluate transient grip feeling according to the magnitude of lateral jerk. Next, we analyzed what vehicle parameters affect lateral jerk by using theoretical equations. As a result, we found that cornering power is an important parameter, especially the cornering power of rear tires as they can be create larger lateral jerk than can front tires.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Control in Limit Cornering by Active Brake

Improvement of vehicle dynamics in limit cornering have been studied. Simulations and tests have verified that vehicle stability and course trace performance in limit cornering have been improved by active brake control of each wheel. The controler manages vehicle yaw moment utilizing difference braking force between left and right wheels, and vehicle deceleration utilizing sum of braking forces of all wheels.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Behavior Under the Influence of Steering Dynamics by Means of Low Frequency Torque Input

This paper describes and confirms the effect of low frequency sinusoidal steering torque input on vehicle response and steering behavior using vehicle test, analysis with equations of motion and simulations. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input is quite different to the vehicle response by low frequency steer angle input. Steering system parameters such as moment of inertia, damping, friction and power steering assist torque have an effect on low frequency torque input steering system dynamics. The dynamic response of the vehicle with electric power steering (EPS) system, which has a big moment of inertia with electric motor and friction of the reduction gear, is affected by the steering system dynamic properties. The vehicle response by low frequency torque input test has capability for contribute to vehicle evaluation such as steer feel or maneuverability of handling.