Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Journal Article

A CFD Analysis Method for Prediction of Vehicle Exterior Wind Noise

2017-03-28
2017-01-1539
High frequency wind noise caused by turbulent flow around the front pillars of a vehicle is an important factor for customer perception of ride comfort. In order to reduce undesirable interior wind noise during vehicle development process, a calculation and visualization method for exterior wind noise with an acceptable computational cost and adequate accuracy is required. In this paper an index for prediction of the strength of exterior wind noise, referred to as Exterior Noise Power (ENP), is developed based on an assumption that the acoustic power of exterior wind noise can be approximated by the far field acoustic power radiated from vehicle surface. Using the well-known Curle’s equation, ENP can be represented as a surface integral of an acoustic intensity distribution, referred to as Exterior Noise Power Distribution (ENPD). ENPD is estimated from turbulent surface pressure fluctuation and mean convective velocity in the vicinity of the vehicle surface.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

1998-10-19
982672
As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

A New Material Recycling Technology for Automobile Rubber Waste

2003-10-27
2003-01-2775
A new material recycling technology for crosslinked rubber was developed using the continuous reactive processing method. In this process of producing reclaimed rubber, breakage of crosslinking points in the crosslinked rubber occurs selectively under the controls of shear stress, reaction temperature, and internal pressure in a modular screw type reactor. Deodorization during the process has also become possible by a newly developed method. The reclaimed rubber obtained from rubber waste generated from both automobile manufacturing products and post-consumer products shows excellent mechanical properties applicable to new rubber compounds. Furthermore, an enhanced rubber recycling process for producing thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) based on rubber waste has been established. The obtained TPE exhibits highly recoverable rubber elasticity and mechanical properties comparable to commercial TPE.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Engine Sound Design for Car Interior Noise Using a Psychoacoustic Index

2004-03-08
2004-01-0406
In this study, a new practical design method (tool) for engine sound quality in a car interior is proposed. The tool can automatically create the target interior sound using the psychoacoustic index ‘powerfulness’ based on subjective tests. Moreover, it can calculate the intake noise characteristic to create the target interior sound and select the suitable intake specification from the prepared database. By using this method sound engineering can be easily and effectively carried out without manufacturing an experimental car.
Technical Paper

A New V-8 Engine for the LEXUS LS 400

1989-09-01
892003
A new 4.0 liter V8 engine, 1UZ-FE, has been developed for the luxury sedan, LEXUS LS400. The engine has 4 camshafts and 32 valves, and weighs only 195 kg (430 lbs) having many light alloy components and carefully designed configurations. The appropriate engine displacement and high technology adopted throughout from design to manufacturing process enable the LS400 to run powerfully with excellent fuel economy and a pleasant sounds. It develops 250HP at 5600 rpm and 260ft-lbs of torque at 4400 rpm, and its fuel economy figure, well exceeds the EPA's tax charge level of 22.5mpg. These figures have been achieved through the newest technologies applied to every part of the design, such as: Well studied intake and exhaust systems, centrally located spark plug in the TOYOTA original four-valve combustion chamber, which has a narrow valve including angle, and low friction components like aluminum alloy valve lifters and well balanced moving parts.
Technical Paper

A Robustness-Focused Shape Optimization Method for Intake Ports

2009-06-15
2009-01-1777
Merging a CAE shape optimization system and a concept Taguchi method SN-ratio index, a robustness-focused automated shape optimization method has been developed. Applying this method to diesel intake ports, with mold position tolerance set as the error factor, SN-ratio was defined for swirl stability. As a result of the optimization provided by a multi-objective genetic algorithm, simultaneous improvement of flux, swirl rotation and SN ratio was achieved.
Technical Paper

A SEA-Based Optimizing Approach for Sound Package Design

2003-05-05
2003-01-1556
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a promising tool for developing an efficient sound package design for reducing airborne interior noise at high frequencies. The optimal sound package, however, is not directly predicted by using the SEA vehicle model alone and therefore requires parametric studies of sound package configurations. This paper describes an effective method for using SEA modeling to achieve the desired interior noise level targets. A mathematical model, expressed by one equation, is derived on the assumption that the directions of the power flows are known in the SEA model. This equation describes the relationship between sound package properties and the resulting interior noise level. Using the relationship between weight and performance of sound package, an efficient configuration can be determined. The predicted sound pressure level of the vehicle interior with the optimized sound package correlated well to the experimental data for the case presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cervical Spine Kinematics and Joint Capsule Strain in Rear Impacts using a Human FE Model

2006-11-06
2006-22-0020
Many efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of whiplash injury. Recently, the cervical facet joint capsules have been focused on as a potential site of injury. An experimental approach has been taken to analyze the vertebral motion and to estimate joint capsule stretch that was thought to be a potential cause of pain. The purpose of this study is to analyze the kinematics of the cervical facet joint using a human FE model in order to better understand the injury mechanism. The Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) was used to visually analyze the local and global kinematics of the spine. Soft tissues in the neck were newly modeled and introduced into THUMS for estimating the loading level in rear impacts. The model was first validated against human test data in the literature by comparing vertebrae motion as well as head and neck responses. Joint capsule strain was estimated from a maximum principal strain output from the elements representing the capsule tissues.
Technical Paper

A Study on Energy-Absorbing Mechanism of Plastic Ribs

1998-09-29
982346
This paper describes development of a numerical simulation method for the FMVSS 201 testing. This method considers not only deformation but also fracture of plastic materials. a simplified calculation method for predicting the load during impact of absorbing plastic materials was introduced from the numerical simulation results. By applying this simplified calculator method trial and error in development would be reduced.
Technical Paper

A Target Cascading Method Using Model Based Simulation in Early Stage of Vehicle Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0836
In the early stages of vehicle development, it is important for decision makers to understand a feasible constraint region that satisfies all system level requirements. The purpose of this paper is to propose a target cascading method to solve for a feasible design region which satisfies all constraints of the system based on model based simulation. In this method, the feasible design region is explored by using both global optimization methods and active learning techniques. In optimization problems, the inverse problem for understanding feasibility for specific designs is defined and solved. To determine the objective functions of the inverse problem, an index representing the achievement level of constraints from system requirements is introduced. To predict feasible regions in the specific design space, a surrogate model of minimized values of the index is trained by using a kriging model.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Journal Article

An Application of a Model-Prediction-Based Reference Modification Algorithm to Engine Air Path Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0586
In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits. Hence, it is quite beneficial to cultivate RG methodologies to deal with multiple references and constraints.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Simplification of Thermal Endurance Tests of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1496
Our two types of NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalyst have been tested under various conditions of thermal endurance; the performance of these catalysts have been regressed to give the formulas that enable to estimate the performance after thermal endurance; and we have found the method to simplify (shorten the duration of) the thermal endurance tests and that the thermal deterioration of NSR catalysts is controlled by the worst condition of endurance (at least approximately). The regression formula for the amount of potassium that contributes to the catalyst performance (active K) after the endurance has also been obtained. These formulas predict that the amount of active K is the least for the worst condition of endurance and suggest a difference in deterioration mechanism that reflects the performance between low and high temperatures and the portion of worse deterioration (front or rear).
Technical Paper

Analysis for Relationship between Vehicle NOx Emission and Roadside NO2 Concentration

2008-04-14
2008-01-0755
NO2 sources of roadside atmosphere at Matsubarabashi monitoring station in Tokyo were investigated analytically. The result showed that contribution of urban background is dominant from November to February and NO oxidation with O3 has large contribution from April to September. NO2 air quality standard will be achieved by reducing vehicle NOx emission to post-new long-term regulation level. The analytical method was verified by using our developed simulation system, which consists of micro traffic flow analyzer and CFD-based, unsteady-state diffusion with chemical reaction solver.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Vibration Caused by Starter Shaft Resonance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1319
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulation result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper, as an application of the 1D physical power plant model (engine model), we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. First, an engine model for 3.5L 6cyl NA engine was developed by energy-based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language registered in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) to realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Degradation Mechanism of Lead-Free Materials

2009-04-20
2009-01-0260
The use of lead-free (Pb-free) solder and plating in onboard electronic components has accelerated rapidly in recent years, but solutions have yet to be found for the issues of whisker generation in tin (Sn) plating and crack initiation in Pb-free solder, despite widespread research efforts. Analysis of the whisker generation mechanism has focused on internal energy levels and crystal orientation, and analysis of the crack initiation mechanism in Pb-free solder has examined changes in the grain boundaries of Sn crystals.
Journal Article

Analysis of Influence of Snow Melting Agents and Soil Components on Corrosion of Decorative Chrome Plating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0539
The dissolution and exfoliation of chromium plating specific to Russia was studied. Investigation and analysis of organic compounds in Russian soil revealed contents of highly concentrated fulvic acid. Additionally, it was found that fulvic acid, together with CaCl2 (a deicing agent), causes chromium plating corrosion. The fulvic acid generates a compound that prevents reformation of a passivation film and deteriorates the sacrificial corrosion effectiveness of nickel.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2515
The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Potassium Storage Components in NOx Catalysts Application of Analytical Techniques and DFT Computations to Catalytic Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1494
By using analytical techniques (FT-IR, TG-MS, ICP) and DFT calculations, the potassium (K) used as a storage component in NOx Catalysts can be analyzed. The results from this study show that the, K exists as K2CO3, and that the amount, molecular structure, and thermal stability of K2CO3 are different, depending on the support material (ZrO2, Al2O3, or TiO2). If the amount of K that interacts with the support to form an inactive complex oxide is decreased, the amount of K2CO3 and NOx storage is increased. The amount of the inactive K varies with the basicity of the supports. K2CO3 that exists in unstable structures on the supports can be easy to react with NOx to form the nitrate. So, the higher the quantity of unstable K2CO3, the higher the NOx storage capacity. Based on these results, a development guideline was proposed to improve the NOx storage performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Behaviors of Swirl Nozzle Spray and Slit Nozzle Spray in Relation to DI Gasoline Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0058
Behavior of sprays formed by slit nozzle as well as swirl nozzles with the spray cone angle in the range of 40° ∼110 ° were studied in a constant volume N2 gas chamber. The fuels used are iso-pentane, n-heptane, benzene and gasoline. The ambient pressure and temperature were raised up to 1.0 MPa and 465 K, respectively. The injection pressure was mainly set at 8 MPa. Spray penetrates at an almost constant speed for a while after injection start and begins to decelerate at a certain point. This point was judged as breakup point, based on a momentum theory on spray motion, the observation of spray inside and the analysis of the spray front reacceleration which occurs under highly volatile condition.
X